Australia’s population and its distribution have varied over the past few decades. Fifty years ago, the population was a lot younger and even though the population was not as large as it is today, there was a higher fertility rate than seen in recent years. Now, the population has greatly increased, with it now standing at approximately 22. 9 million, and with this, the fertility rate has decreased to around 1. 8 children per women. Due to the lower fertility rate and the increasing life expectancy, you will find that Australia population is rising, but it is also ageing. 8% of Australia is defined as ‘remote’, and due to this, there are major concentrations of people living in or near costal areas. These concentrations are largely around the east and south east of Australia, with a smaller concentration in the south west of the country. This is mainly because of two reasons. Firstly, the costal areas of Australia provide much more comfortable living conditions compared to the arid or semi-arid land in the center of Australia.Secondly, because of the more preferred living conditions costal areas provide, all of our capital cities except Canberra are located in these sort of areas. Australia’s population distribution, both in age and location, is very uneven because of the varied environmental factors and because of the low fertility rate and increased life expectancy. 2) In the population pyramid for 1999, there are a lot more fluctuations throughout the pyramid in comparison to the one for 2056. One of the main differences, and probably the most obvious, is the size difference between the two.The population for 2056 is anticipated to greatly increase from 1999. Comparing the two, 1999 has a lot more curves and points in it due to fluctuations and population concentration over different age groups. 2056 is quite bulged and there are fewer fluctuations, making it less pointed. Both of the pyramids have concentrations in the older age groups, especially between the twenties to fifties, although the pyramid for 2056 has a greater amount of people in the age group. This shows that our population whole population is expected to grow, especially the older age groups. ) The main reason we see the population growing is due to the natural increase, experienced from more births than deaths, and from people migrating to Australia. The sustained growth of people in old age is due to the current and expected developments in the medical industry, making people healthier and therefore increasing the life expectancy. Also, the concentration of the population aged between their twenties and fifties is due to the amount of people in adulthood being greater than the number of children born (fertility rate), and also due to the large number of migrations we are expecting to encounter.The fluctuations seen in 1999 can be a cause of a large amount of deaths in a particular age group, such as war or an illness the country faced. 2056 having less fluctuations, means that less cases of misfortunes such as war or illness wiping out age groups are expected. 4) Australia’s ageing population is a problem that Australia is facing, and is due to be facing in greater force with the years to come. Having a large amount of the population in old age and retirement proposes many difficulties for the nation, and the government especially to overcome.With a larger number of the population retiring, this will cause some to rely fully or partly on pensioner payments to get by. In turn, this will cause a greater increase in the tax paid by younger, working citizens. Also, with a large amount of elderly people, comes a greater demand for infrastructure such as hospitals, medical centers and nursing homes. All of these require government funding and demand qualified nurses and doctors to perform these jobs.The demand in comparison to the available resources will greatly differ, affecting the economy. By the time my generation move into retirement, the necessity for facilities such as hospitals and nursing homes, as well as the need for the government to fund the people and the facilities they use will be overwhelming. There is a great chance that it will be a financial struggle, and that the demand for people to have careers such as doctors, nurses and surgeon will be the highest than it has ever been. ) In response to Australia’s ageing population, the government has developed plans that will assist the country in overcoming the potential struggles. The introduction of superannuation has been a major part of this, as it means less money will be required for pensions. To improve the health of the older population the government, and many health clubs and gyms are promoting for people over the age of 55 to stay active and be fit. The government is also putting a lot of focus in preventative health care, to ensure that the elderly population don’t require as much medical attention. a) Environmentalists strongly believe that a population of up to 30 million is the most that we could sustain, due to our already large carbon footprint and consistent consuming of resources. We are currently faced with issues such as global warming, which will only get worse in the future if better care is not taken. There is already starting to be a great decrease in resources such as water, and if we can barely sustain resources at our current population, then environmentalists believe that it would be impossible to have a population of 100 million.Having a greatly increased population will only add to the current stresses placed on the environment. Others, such as politicians and businessmen believe that we could sustain a population of 100 million. They feel that by doing this, our economy would be extremely prosperous and would place us very high up in the world. Businessmen in particular feel that this would be an ideal population, as companies would benefit greatly from the amount of goods purchased, making them earn massive amounts of money.Also, due Australia’s large size, they feel that we have plenty of room to accommodate a huge population. Other people feel that developments in technology could solve the problems that environmentalists argue concerning a large population. b) I agree with environmentalist’s views on a population of 30 million being a sustainable amount, although I believe that the increase in the population should be from the younger generations to help solve the issue of an ageing population.I feel that we are already consuming large number of resources and are struggling to keep our dam levels up, and by having an extremely large population would wreck havoc on the country. Our carbon footprints are already quite large and we need to consider future generations. With a population of around 30 million, the government would easily be able to manage finances and efficiently plan and manage the infrastructure required. An over inflated population would overwhelm the government with the requirements that come along with it.