Banana Peel Paper

The success and completion of this research project would not have been made possible if not for those people who, in many ways, gave their utmost support and earnest inspiration and from whom the researchers owe countless, immense and infinite gratitude. Mrs. Marie Jane F. Angeles, Research Adviser for her ideas and untiring efforts and unspeakable patience for the success of the project.Her increasing guidance and for worthy suggestions that served as their challenge to finish the project to its finest. Mr. Santiago Villafuerte, Head teacher-Science Department for his strict supervision especially in calculating the wise use of time. Mrs. LeonidaCabrido, Critic teacher for editing and putting this into final paper. Engr. Roger Rumpon, Professor CSU Carig Tuguegarao, for having shared his expertise in the statistics of the data. Mrs. Tessie J. Molina, School Principal for her untiring support and for the encouraging words during the hard times in the pursuit of this study.Ms. WendeceBalisi, Physics teacher for her assistance in the reproduction of the final manuscript. Mrs. Ruby Capelo for the display board. To their classmates and friends who undoubtedly shared their ideas and comments to the project. Above all, to the Almighty God who serves as a guiding light in the uncertain journey all throughout their entire life and endeavours, for without HIM this could not be made achievable. The Researchers ABSTRACT This research study aimed to investigate the viability of banana peel paper as a alternative to commercial linen paper.The study used experimental and control unit and which was visually judge and rated according to a three-point scale, 1-Low; 2-Meduim; and 3-High as regards to luster and smoothness. The data gathered were analyzed using the Two-way Analysis of Variance and Comparison Mean Test. Computation results show that lusterity across treatment and not across judges are significantly different from each other with a probability value, p>0. 01. Mean comparison test revealed that experimental unit is significantly different from the control unit. This means that the control unit is more luster than the experimental unit.Based on the result of mean smoothness scores of experimental and control unit as rated by 10 judges and subjecting this to an analysis of variance, the studies showed that there was no significant difference between the experimental and control unit in so far as smoothness is concerned Therefore, it was proven that in terms of the viability of banana peelings as an alternative to commercial linen paper, banana peel paper can be as effective as for commercial linen in terms of smoothness. ii LIST OF FIGURES TitlePage 1. Discarding of Banana Peels…………………………………………………………………….. 4 2. Gathering of Trashed Papers…………………………………………………………………… 25 3. Cutting of Banana Peels………………………………………………………………………….. 26 4. Cutting of Trashed Papers……………………………………………………………………….. 27 5. Measuring the Volume of Water……………………………………………………………… 28 6. Paper-Water Mixture……………………………………………………………………………… 29 7.The Blending Process……………………………………………………………………………… 30 8. Getting the Mixture………………………………………………………………………………… 31 9. Molding the Mixture………………………………………………………………………………. 32 iii LIST OF TABLES Title Page 1. Mean Luster Scores of Experimental and Control as Rated by Ten Judges……….. 13 2. Mean Luster Scores of Ten Judges………………………….. …………………………… 14 3.Analysis of variance of Luster……………………………………………… ………………… 14 4. Comparison of Mean of Luster across Treatment…………………………………… 15 5. Mean Smoothness Scores of Experimental and Control as Rated by Ten Judges… 15 6. Mean Smoothness Scores of ten Judges……………………………………………………. ….. 16 7. Analysis of variance of Smoothness………………………………… …………………….. 17 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………… i Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………. i Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………. iii List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………….. iv List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………v Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………….. vi CHAPTERS I. INTRODUCTION Background of the Study…………………………………………………. .1 Research Paradigm……………………………………………………….. .2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….. 3 Research Hypothesis………………………………………………………. 3 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………. 4 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………… 4 Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………………………. 4 Time and Place of the Study………………………………………………5Definition of Terms……………………………………………………….. 5 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………………………………. 6 v III. METHODOLOGY A. Materials ………………………………………………………………10 B. Procedures………………………………………………………………….. 10 IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………………………………. 13 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary and Conclusion ……………………………………………………….. 18 Recommendation ………………………………………………………………… 19 BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………… 20 APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………………………… i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the study Paper is one of the major materials used nowadays in schools, offices, etc. Some papers are made brand-new from trees – either small or large trees are harvested just for the purpose. If this is the case paper companies will need to cut down trees to provide paper for the community. Today, with the increasing number of calamities, trees must be preserved to avoid flood, instead of cutting down trees for providing paper, there is a need to search and design a wise and cheap alternativesource of paper.The use of botanical materials is increasingly gaining popularity as strategic approach toward a sustainable environment and production of safe materials. Banana is one of the leading fruit grown in the Philippines and a consistent top dollar earner. It makes bananas abundant in the Philippines because of its tropical climate. More than 50 different kinds of bananas are found in our country. The banana fruit when ripe is eaten, living behind the banana peel. The study was made to make paper out of banana peel, to reduce waste as well as the cutting down of trees.The researchers aimed to come up with a paper that is ofhigh quality but on the other hand must also be cost efficient, and most importantlyenvironmental- friendly. ? RESEARCH PARADIGM Figure 1 Research Paradigm A diagram framework is shown in the above figure. It presents the paradigm, which guided the researchers in the overall conduct of the study. The input variables were the materials use in making the banana peel paper. Having done the process, the output is the banana peel paper. The arrows communicate the adjustments to be made through a feedback loop depending on the results of the study.Hence, adjustments could be made in the input or process. ? Statement of the Problem The study was designed for the purpose of making a paper out of banana peel. These reasons brought the researchers to conduct the experiment. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions. •Will it be viable as an alternative to commercial linen paper? •Will it be cheaper to sue than the commercial paper? Hypotheses Null Hypothesis– There is no significant difference in the luster between the experimental and the control unit. -There is no significant difference in the smoothness between the experimental and the control unit. Alternative Hypothesis– There is a significant difference in the luster between the experimental and the control unit. – There is a significant difference in the smoothness between the experimental and the control unit. Objective of the study The main objective of this study was to determine if banana peel paper is better than the commercial linen paper in terms of lusterity and smoothness. Significance of the Study The study was conducted to make paper out of banana peel. It is equally significant to the following. Environment.Using the product lessen the cutting of trees in the locality, and reduce the waste scattered in the surroundings Community. The insights and valuable information from this study would help people in the locality to make paper out of the littered banana peelin their houses and it will also reduce the waste in the community. Researchers. The gathered data would motivate them and help them to conduct further researches in line with this study. Scopes and Delimitation This study is focused mainly on the use of banana peelings in the production of paper. The researchers did not dwell on the chemical composition of the peelings.Time and place of the study This study was conducted at the Science Laboratory of Baggao National High School from July 20- July 30, 2012 . Definition of terms Banana peel – the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off and discarded). Paper – a thin material consisting of flat sheets made from pulped wood, cloth, or fiber. Use: for writing and printing on, for wrapping things in, for covering walls. Musa acuminata– scientific name of banana. Extract – is an aqueous solution containing the active principal of the plant. Control- Variables that do not receive any treatment.Experimental- The variables that receive treatment. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Banana (Musa acuminata +Musa balbisiana) Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. They are native to tropical South and Southeast Asia, and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. ] They are grown in at least 107 countries, primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and as ornamental plants.Its fruits, rich in starch, grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. They come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The scientific names of bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana or hybrids Musa acuminata ? balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific names Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiaca are no longer used Banana is also used to describe Enset and Fe’i bananas, neither of which belong to the aforementioned species.Enset bananas belong to the genus Ensete while the taxonomy of Fe’i-type cultivars is uncertain. ( From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) In popular culture and commerce, “banana” usually refers to soft, sweet “dessert” bananas. By contrast, Musa cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called plantains or “cooking bananas”. The distinction is purely arbitrary and the terms “plantain” and “banana” are sometimes interchangeable depending on their usage. ( (http://en. wikipedia. org/) Related Research/Studies Musa sapientum peels were analyzed for minerals and anti-nutritional contents.The results of mineral content indicate the concentration (mg/g) of potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, bromine, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, and niobium to be 78. 10, 19. 20, 24. 30, 0,61, 76. 20, 0,04, 0. 21, 0. 03, 0. 02 and 0. 02 respectively. The percentage concentration of protein, lipid, carbohydrates and crude fibre were 0. 96,1,7059. 06 and 31. 70 respectively. Results indicated that if the peels are properly exploited and process, they could be a high quality and cheap source of CHO and minerals for livestock. (Department of Chemical College of Advance Professional Studies, Makurdi ).In another studies made, Musa sapientum prevent anaemia by stimulating the production of haemoglobin in the blood. Its role to regulate blood pressure has been associated with the high concentration of potassium (Benue State University, Makurdi). What further stated that banana helps in solving problem in solving the problem of constipation without necessary resulting to laxative. It can cure heart burns, stress, strokes, ulcers and many other ailments. The peels have been reported to be useful in making banana charcoal, an alternative source of cooking fuel in Kampala.Along with other fruits and vegetable consumption of bananas may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and in women, breast cancer and renal carcinoma. In India ,juice is extracted from the corn and used as a home remedy for jaundices sometimes with the addition of honey and for kidney stones. Kudan reported that the peels in conjunction with other substances create a liniment for reducing the acuteness of the arthritis, aches and pains. The organic matter content was found to be 91. 00%. Organic matter measures the nutritional value (lipids, proteins and CHOI of a plant material).The high value indicates that the banana peels are good source of nutrient . The study of the anti-nutrient content of the peel indicates generally low values except saponins . This means that if the peels are properly processed could be good source of food for livestock(Joshua Waya, April 2007). The banana plant has long been source of fibre for high quality textiles. It is used in the production of banana paper. Banana as fertilizer work out with a number of plants. Bananas have a lot of health benefits. Using banana skin fertilizer is also a great way of recycling kitchen waste (Robert Marcello).Banana peels add several important nutrients to fertilizer including calcium, magnesium, sulphur, potassium phosphate and sodium. Banana peels can be use as compost or fertilizer as- is but the nutrients they contain may be released more slowly and the benefits to your plants greatly reduced. Dried banana peels have 30-40% tannin content. This substance is used to treat and blacken leather, fresh banana peels are an efficient shoe polisher. (Maria Kielmas, August 2011) Banana Fiber Textile Products Banana fibers such as flax, jute, hemp, and pineapple etc plant fibers. re all made up of thick walled cell tissue and they are bonded together by natural gums and support the branches, stems, leaves and fruits. Although banana plants and fibers are available in tropical regions in abundance, their application potential has not been exploited fully. At present, other companIies make the limited application of banana fiber ,for example, in making ropes, mats, and some other fields such as the composite materials. In recent years, more and more plant fibers were considered to be “environmentally friendly” fiber sources , and many countries are emphasizing the utilizing of these fibers. http://www. li-fei. com) Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY A. MATERIALS Knives, banana peels,Blender, A mesh surface, Hot boiling waterPot B. PROCEDURE Gathering of Banana Peel The Banana peelings were brought by the second year science class. Some were brought by the reaserchers. Preparation for the Banana Peelings The banana fruit were peeled and the fruits were discarded or eaten. The banana peels where weighed by the researchers to get the right concentration and got exactly 156 grams, usually it takes 4 banana peels to get the exact weight. The imperfections in the banana peels were trimmed until only the banana peel retained.Chopping of the Banana Peelings The banana peelings were cut into small pieces/sections. A knife was used to chop the banana peel easily. Cutting of Paper Two pieces of paper, with an intermediate size were gathered in a waste can. The papers were cut into smaller sections. The blender was used to blend the papers with 250ml water within 30 seconds. Preparation of the Treatment The small pieces of banana peelings and small pieces of paper with 125 ml of water, placed in a blender and was mixed for within 30 seconds until the mixture was uniformed. Molding the TreatmentA mesh surface with a uniform depth of 1mm was moistened using water. Using a ladle, the banana peel mixture was spread over the moistened mesh. Drying of the Treatment The mixture was left under the sun for 24hours or until the extract was entirely dry. The banana peel was removed gently from the mesh. Then the paper was placed on a flat surface under the sun for it to become fully dry. Gathering and Analysis of Data The experimental and control unit passes through ten(10) judges and were rated according to a 3-point scale. 1- low; 2- medium and 3- high as regards to luster and smoothness.Data were analyzed using the Two-way Analysis of Variance and Comparison Mean test. Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DSICUSSION This chapter presents and thoroughly analyzes and interprets the gathered from the experiments done in the study. Table 1. Mean Luster Scores of experimental and Control as rated by 10 Judges TREATMENTMean ScoreAdjectival ValueS. D. Experimental1. 60Low0. 149 Control2. 60High0. 149 Over-all2. 10Medium The above table (table 1) on the mean luster scores of experimental and control as rated by 10 judges shows that mean luster score for experimental unit was 1. 60 with an adjectival value of low.While the mean value of the control unit is 2. 60 with adjectival value of high. The overall mean luster score of both the control and experimental as rated by the ten judges was 2. 10 with adjectival value of medium. Table 2. Mean Luster Scores of 10 Judges TMean scoreAdjectival ValueS. D. J1 1. 50Low0. 33 J21. 50Low0. 33 J32. 0Medium0. 33 J42. 50High0. 33 J52. 50High0. 33 J62. 50High0. 33 J72. 50High0. 33 J82. 0Medium0. 33 J92. 0Medium0. 33 J102. 0Medium0. 33 Over-all2. 10Medium Based on the mean luster scores of 10 judges (Table 2), result shows that of the 10 judges, J1 and J2 have the same mean luster score of 1. 0 and adjectival value of low. Judges 3, 8, 9 and 10 have 2. 0 mean score and medium adjectival value. Analysis of the table further reveals that judges 4, 5, 6, and 7 have a meanluster score of 2. 50 and high adjectival value. Table 3. Analysis of Variance of Luster Source of VariationDegree of FreedomSum of SquaresMean SquaresF computedProbability, value, p Treatment 15. 05. 022. 50. 001** Judge92. 800. 311. 40. 312 Error592. 00. 22 Total199. 80 **- significant at . 01 level Subjecting lusterity from across treatments and judges to analysis of variance, result shows that lusterity across the different treatments and

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