Causes of Poverty

This research proposal is my original work and has not been presented by anyone else for examination in any other institute of learning. Production of any part of this proposal is prohibited without prior permission of the Moi University or the author. Name: xxx Sign…………………… Date………………………… Reg No:________________ Declaration by the supervisor This research proposal has been submitted with my approval as xxxxxxxxxxxxx supervisor.Name:__________ Sign………………………. Date………………………… xxxxxxx DEDICATION This proposal is dedicated to Almighty God, the beginning and the end, the God of difficulty and simplicity, who has made it possible to complete this study. This project is also dedicated to my precious parents: Mr. and Mrs. my brothers and sisters, xxx and friends, I love you all. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a pleasure to have completed this challenging work. The success of this proposal could not have been possible, but for the mercy guidance and support of the Almighty God.In addition I cannot forget to thank the following people. First and foremost, my undiluted tribute goes to my supervisor, xxxx distinguished fellow in the field of xxxx for his contributions, corrections and suggestions during the course of the write up of this proposal. Besides, I express my profound gratitude to him for making this proposal a success in spite of his tight schedule. My special gratitude and appreciation goes to my family for their love, moral and financial support. I pray that God will grant you all your heart desire and take you o a greater height in life. ABSTRACT Though the government is committed to providing basic education to all children of school going age, Kimumu ward still lags behind. This study will therefore, investigate Gender factor in performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. It will investigate to answer the following questions: To what extent do family based factors affect the performance of boys and girls at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County?To what extent do community based factors affect the performance of boys and girls at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County? To what extent does the school environment affect the performance of boys and girls at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County? Specific sampling technique will be applied, data will be collected through questionnaires and interviews will be scheduled to be administered to pupils, class teachers and head teachers during the study. TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATIONiiDEDICATIONiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTiv ABSTRACTv TABLE OF CONTENTvi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSviii 1. 0 Introductionix 1. 1 Background of the studyix 1. 2 Statement of the problemxi 1. 3 Objectives of the Studyxii 1. 4 Research Questionsxii 1. 5 Scope of the Studyxiii 1. 6 Significance of the Study. xiii 1. 7 Limitations of the Studyxiii 1. 8 Conceptual Frameworkxiv Fig. 1. 1Conceptual frame workxiv 1. 9 Assumption of the Studyxv 1. 10 operational definition of termsxvi CHAPTER TWOxvii 2. 0 INTRODUCTIONxvii 2. 1 Literature Reviewxvii 2. 2 Causes for gender differencesxix . 2. 1 Environment and biologicalxix 2. 2. 2 Attitudes, confidence and behaviourxx 2. 2. 3 Classroom interactionxxi 2. 2. 4 The influence of peersxxi 2. 2. 5 Assessment and tasksxxii 2. 2. 6 Teaching and learning stylesxxiii 2. 2. 7 Aspirations and post-school opportunitiesxxiv 2. 2. 8 Social class, parental education and ethnicityxxv 2. 2. 9 Gender and Mathematics Performancexxvi 2. 3 Theoretical Frameworkxxvii 2. 4 Chapter summaryxxviii CHAPTER THREExxix RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGYxxix 3. 0 INTRODUCTIONxxix 3. 1 The Research Designxxix 3. Population and samplingxxix 3. 2. 1 Study Populationxxx 3. 2. 2 Samplexxx 3. 3 Data collectionxxxi 3. 3. 1 Instrumentationxxxi 3. 3. 2 Research Procedurexxxi 3. 3. 3 Data Collection Procedurexxxi 3. 4 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrumentsxxxii 3. 4. 1 Reliabilityxxxii 3. 4. 2 Validityxxxii 3. 5 Data Analysisxxxii REFERENCESxxxiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ECD: Early Childhood Development FPE: Free Primary Education KCPE: Kenya Certificate of Primary Education KNUT: Kenya National Union of Teachers MoEST : Ministry of Education Science and TechnologySRS: Simple Random Sampling UNESCO: United Nations Education, Science and Cultural organisation UPE: Universal Primary Education CHAPTER ONE 1. 0 Introduction This chapter presents an overview of the study. It looks at the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose, objectives, research questions, assumptions, significance, justification, limitation, conceptual framework and operational definition of terms. 1. 1 Background of the study For some time there has been widespread concern over gender patterns in educational performance in Kenya.Recently, this concern has focused on the perception that boys are ‘doing better’ than girls in a number of key areas, most notably in the end-of-school results in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. However, it is believed that investment in the girl child education at primary school level improves nutritional practices, proper hygiene, management of households and quality of life in developing nations. In Kenya, the government has articulated its commitment to providing free primary education to all children of school going age.Female performance remains a drawback to realizing an ideal quality and universal primary education. Performance in Kenyan primary schools has been a disturbing issue for a long time. Mwango (1998), on the causes of poor performance of English in public day schools and high performance in boarding schools, has found that high performance is due to high motivation for both students and teachers, light subject load for teachers, more learning hours and high economic status. Poor health of the learners is a significant obstacle leading to chronic absenteeism.Another area is poverty where 47% of the rural people live below poverty line. Iron deficiency leads to poor cognitive performance. Schwartz et al. (2002) have found that child abuse is a factor leading to poor performance. The types of abuse include beating of children at home and learning institutions; other Students’are deprived of food and hence education. Child abuse leads to children leaving school for streets where they end up getting exploited for cheap labour and even sexual abuse to both the girl and the boy child (ibid. ).Kimatu (2007) has found that poor performance in the Nairobi’s Kibera Slums has been a result of pupils not taking education seriously. The surrounding environment has made it difficult for learning. Kimatu (ibid. ) also observes that pupils are ill disciplined and there is high dropout rate in the area. Eshiwani (1983) has found that performance in the Western Province in Kenya is influenced by large class size, poor school facilities, lack of preparation or homework, lack of sound and efficient leadership in the school administration, the inadequate amount of time allocated to teaching and learning teacher characteristics.Owiye (2005) notes that in Siaya District, wastage is high in upper grades and girls are more affected than boys. This wastage has led to poor performance. This wastage is brought about by lack of fees, inadequate learning and teaching facilities, parental attitude, illiteracy levels, family size and health related problems. There has also been the issue of dropouts due to forced repetition, poverty, absenteeism, child labour, negative attitude, domestic chores and economic activities in the environment.Snow et al. (2009) says that common factors to poor performance in schools include inadequate teaching resources, absenteeism due to lack school fees, poor syllabus coverage, poor administration leading to lack of motivation of teachers, poor teacher student ratios, poor infrastructure like ill constructed facilities, poor roads, lack of inspections, disease outbreaks like malaria in swampy areas and language Gender is a factor that has been associated with low achievement. The results are however mixed.For instance, using data from Bangladesh, Asadullah, Chaudhury, and Dar (2007) combine fixed effects and instrumental variable estimation techniques and find that girls significantly had lower test scores compared to boys, even ‘after controlling for school and classroom specific unobservable correlates of learning’ (p. 648). Husain and Millimet(2008) use a nationally representative panel data set on students from kindergarten to third grade in the US and find that white boys out-perform white girls in mathematics. But other studies have found the performance of girls to be better than that of the boys.In the UK, Cassen and Kingdon, (2007) found that boys outnumbered girls as low achievers with nearly half of all such low achievers being white British males. Still in the UK, Strand (1997) fi nds that girls post better academic performance compared to boys. Kutnick (2000) explores attainments by sex in Barbados and St. Vincent and finds that girls generally had better achievement scores than boys across the range of subject areas. Fuller, Abraha, Beyene, Dubale, Holloway, & King, (1991) also found that girls who attended school in Ethiopia’s urban centers had better scores in national examinations compared to boys.Though the government is committed to providing basic education to all children of school going age, Kimumu ward still lags behind. This study will therefore, investigate Gender factor in performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. 1. 2 Statement of the problem Performance in national examinations by day primary schools has been poor. This is especially when considered that girls have been generally performing poorly. Education is a necessary condition for development of individuals and nations.Educational performance of individuals is measured using their performance in national examinations. Performance in national examinations is also used to select students progressing to the next level of education and training. Performance across gender has however varied significantly with male pupils posting very good performance while girls performed poorly. The government commissions have endeavoured to address this through recommendations, which are not supported by systematic studies and adequate data.Despite the persistent dismal performance in public primary schools in Uasin Gishu County, no systematic studies have been done to explain circumstances contributing to the situation. Therefore, this study sought to establish gender performance of pupils in Kenya certificate of primary education: a case study of Kimumu ward, Uasin Gishu County. 1. 3 Objectives of the Study i. To identify family related factors that influence performance of pupils in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. ii. To identify community related factors that influence erformance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. iii. To identify school related factors that affect performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. 1. 4 Research Questions i. What are the family related factors that influence performance of pupils in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. ii. How does community related factors influence performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. ii. How does school related factors that affect performance of students in Kenya Certificate of Primary Examinations in Kimumu Ward, Uasin Gishu County. 1. 5 Scope of the Study The study will cover all aspects of gender performance of pupils in Kenya certificate of primary education: a case study of Kimumu ward, Uasin Gishu County and also confined within its objectives. Questionnaire will be used to conduct the study while descriptive statistic will be used to analyse the data. 1. 6 Significance of the Study.The results from this study are aimed at benefiting schools especially public schools to realize the factors that hinder performance and to ensure that they are tackled effectively. 1. 7 Limitations of the Study The findings of this study will be limited Kimumu primary school. The research would have been digestive if it would have been conducted in all the primary schools country wide though this is time consuming and expensive for the researcher. During the data collection in the field, the respondents might fail to give the vital information to the researcher since they may have a thinking that the study is for their appraisal.To avoid such discrepancy, the researcher intends explain to the respondents that the study is for academic purposes only and any information given will be handled with utmost confidence. Since the target population will then be determined by the sample size, the collected information cannot be treated as a collective response of the holistic information from the Kimumu primary school. It is just an approximation which leaves out the room for error. Further study ought to be carried out with large institutions or bigger population to facilitate generalization. 1. Conceptual Framework Fig. 1. 1Conceptual frame work Family related Factors Independent Variable Dependent Variable Gender Performance Community Related Factors * Parents’ Consultation with Teachers, * Parental Response to Provision of Learning Materials, * Parents’ Willingness to Participate in School Development and Assistance * Pupils get at Home School Related Factors Source; (Researcher 2012). The conceptual framework above illustrates the interlink between independent variables with the dependent variable (performance).These independent variables including Family factors (i. e. education of parent and economic status of the family), Community factors (i. e. Parents’ Consultation with Teachers, Parental Response to Provision of Learning Materials, Parents’ Willingness to Participate in School Development and Assistance Pupils get at Home) and School related factors (i. e Availability and usage of teaching/learning facilities, School type and Teacher Characteristics). These have had serious effects on the gender performance of pupils in public primary schools thus damaging pupil’s academic performance.For example, inadequate teachers in organizations; who are supposed to be teaching the pupils and controlling indiscipline in school are a bad factors this result in indiscipline in primary schools therefore lowering the level of individual performance. 1. 9 Assumption of the Study This study will be undertaken on the following assumptions: i. The respondent’s will be a true representation of women in the public service. ii. The respondent’s will provide genuine responses to questions as provided in the research instruments. iii. Research should be completed at the required time. 1. 10 operational definition of termsAcademic Performance: The ability of a leaner to demonstrate what he/she has already learned. It is measured through passing of written exam, i. e. pupil’s examination result in this case is KCPE. Education: the process of brining desirable change into the behaviour of a human being i. e. it is a process of impacting or acquiring knowledge through instruction or study. Gender: Learning: The interaction of the learner with himself and the government. Its acquisition is relatively permanent as a result of practice or experience. Primary School:It is a learning centre of generation education and not a vocational.Normally the age ranges from 6-12 years. Teacher: A professional who facilitates learning through teaching and who has undergone through the training as teacher. Teaching: A process of facilitating learning through an initiative or provision of the necessary and desirable conditions relevant to facilitate learning. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine what has been done by other scholars and researchers in relation to strategic pricing on organizational performance. This review also assists the researcher to limit the problem to define it better.A detailed knowledge of what has been done helps the researcher to avoid unnecessary and unintentional duplication of other projects, demonstrates familiarity with the existing body of knowledge from a framework within which the research findings are to be interrupted and finally to overcome limitations of previous studies. This chapter covers previous studies undertaken on the subject of the study by various researchers and scholars across the globe. 2. 1 Literature Review It is interesting to note that studies of gender differences in other countries report similar trends and issues to the literature in Kenya.In many countries other than Scotland, girls are surpassing boys in secondary education (Sutherland, 1999). * ? In France since the 1970s, more girls than boys have been achieving the baccalaureate. * In Germany, girls have been obtaining better school marks than boys; they repeat classes less often and gain school certificates more successfully. * In Japan, girls have become slightly more likely than boys to proceed to upper secondary. * In Australia, recent statistics have shown an advantage for girls. * In Jamaica, for the last 20 years there has been concern for the “low academic achievement of boys”.Around the world books, articles, research and policies are being written on gender equity, which give more prominence to the needs of boys. In many of the countries concerned three important points are highlighted. 1. The emerging gender gap obscures significantly rising levels of performance by boys as well as girls (Younger et al, 1999; Yates, 1997). 2. Differences in achievement are not always very great and vary from subject to subject (Sutherland, 1999). 3. Concern about the lack of success of boys’ schoolwork should not obscure the relative disadvantage of girls in school education.Researchers from various countries argue that gender reform is not a simple story where the “disadvantage” of girls was discovered, attended to, partially fixed up and then replaced by some of the same processes in relation to boys. They argue that it is not just about examination results – it must continue to be concerned with the inequalities in the curriculum, processes of schooling, and how schooling contributes to different futures for girls and boys (Harker, 2000; Younger et al, 1999; Yates, 1997; Dolle-Willemsen, 1998; Sutherland, 1999).Margaret Sutherland (1999) suggests that when the causes of girls’ and boys’ disadvantages in schools in different parts of the world are discussed four common factors emerge. * The relationship between employment and levels of education. For example, in the Netherlands, research is looking at the effects of the informal curriculum, both in the early and later years, on students’ subject choices and career paths, because girls do not tend to choose the subjects that act as critical “filters” for market-oriented studies.It is suggested that unemployment among young women will be twice as high as among young men in the year 2000, unless girls change their subject choices (Dolle-Willemsen, 1998). * ? The composition and attitudes of the teaching staff. For example, studies in England and the Netherlands have shown that although teachers believe that they give equal treatment to boys and girls, this is rarely achieved (Dolle-Willemsen, 1998; Younger et al, 1999). * ? The attitudes of parents and society.Recent research in Germany (Tiedemann, 2000) has demonstrated that parental stereotyping has an effect on children’s self-perceptions of their mathematical ability, with boys tending to have a higher self-concept than girls. * The attitudes of peer groups. Research in the USA (Adler et al, 1992) and in England (Arnot et al, 1998) has identified the influence of peer pressure on achievement. The focus in educational arenas has shifted in recent years from the underachievement of girls to the underachievement of boys, gender differences in education are still an important focus for concern (Powney, 1996).This is evidenced by the increasing number and range of studies of gender differences in teaching, learning and assessment (Arnot et al, 1999). The authors also note the development of new levels of awareness in the literature of gender differences in learning styles; responses to different teaching and assessment styles, content and feedback; and gender bias in teaching, examining materials and marking. 2. 2 Causes for gender differences 2. 2. 1 Environment and biological All of the causes for gender differences found in the literature can be seen to lie somewhere along the nature-nurture spectrum.Researchers, however, have tended to steer away from simple biological explanations because of the risk that they will be used to justify discrimination against one or other group or will mean that effort is not invested into changing the social circumstances of education (Powney, 1996; Pickering, 1997). Biological theorists argue that differences between men and women can be explained by differences in chromosomes, hormones and brain structure. However, there is little evidence to support these theories and they are generally seen as insufficient to explain all observed gender differences (Twynam-Perkins and Walsh, 1999).Furthermore, Gallagher (1997) points out those simple biological explanations cannot explain changes over time in male and female attainment and Arnot et al (1998) point out those patterns of sex differences are often unstable across cultures making biological explanations difficult to justify. At the other end of the spectrum, lie environmental explanations. These cite the influence of parents, peers, school and society in the development of young peoples’ ideas about being male and female, and on their attitudes, aspirations and interests.For example, Murphy and Elwood (1998) argue that parents respond in different ways to boys and girls, encouraging them to interact differently with the world and develop different interests. These gender preferences align girls and boys in different ways to schooling and learning, leading them to pursue different interests, which provide them with different learning opportunities. According to Murphy and Elwood, this, combined with teachers’ and parents’ treatment of those preferences, leads to differences in performance. Somewhere in between lie theories about learning styles.These suggest that children have preferred learning styles, which are established at a young age. If they then experience teaching styles which do not match their preferred learning styles, their learning is affected and they may become demotivated. There is uncertainty about whether there are gender differences in preferred learning styles. Some authors claim that girls are more holistic and impulsive, while boys are more analytical and reflective in their learning styles, although others that have looked specifically for gender differences have found none (Adey et al, 2000).Adey et al, in a review of research on learning styles, highlight the imprudence of predicting children’s learning styles from their sex, pointing out the overlap in the distribution of styles amongst females and males. The concept does not, therefore, offer a simple explanation of gender differences in performance, but it does highlight the need for teachers to take account of different learning styles in their teaching. A more detailed review of the literature on learning styles can be found below. Given the range of heories, explanations and evidence on gender differences, it is difficult to establish for certain the exact causes. Some authors now recognise the need to consider explanations which take account of biological and environmental factors (Gipps and Murphy, 1994). For example, Govier (1998) argues that each individual is placed somewhere along a male-female continuum and that we arrive at this point through a complex interplay of genetic, biochemical and social factors. Furthermore, he demonstrates a relationship between this point and the life choices that individuals make.Whichever reason is chosen to explain gender differences, the important point to bear in mind is that the chosen cause will determine the course of action taken to tackle the problem. Thus, for example, if you decide that the reasons for gender differences are biological, you may decide that there is nothing you can do to influence them, whereas if you decide that they are environmental, there will be a range of strategies that can be adopted which seek to tackle inequalities. 2. 2. 2 Attitudes, confidence and behaviourThere is evidence in the research literature that boys and girls tend to display different attitudes and behaviour in school. Girls are seen as better prepared, more conscientious, cooperative, organised and respectful. They tend to underestimate their own abilities and their work is better presented. Boys, on the other hand, are seen as ill-prepared, competitive, disruptive, overconfident and less attentive. Boys generally have lower standards of behaviour and are involved in more disciplinary problems (Clark and Trafford, 1996; Sukhnandan, 1999; Arnot et al, 1998; Warrington et al, 2000).Some work suggests that boys and girls have different attribution styles and that this affects their confidence. For example, Burgner and Hewstone (1993) demonstrated that 5-6 year old boys tended to attribute success on tasks to their own abilities and knowledge and failure to the difficulty of the task, whereas girls talked about their own abilities and knowledge whether they succeeded or failed. Whitehead (1994) demonstrated a link between attitudes and achievement. She showed that girls with more traditional gender stereotyped attitudes tended not to do as well at school, regardless of ability levels.For those trying to influence the attitudes of male under-achievers, young men themselves report that, while they would not listen to teachers, parents or other adults, they would take advice from brothers or others who had had similar experiences to themselves (Lloyd, 1999). The evidence that boys’ behaviour is generally more disruptive links in with the statistics on learning and behaviour support, which show that boys are more likely than girls to be assigned to additional support, whether within mainstream schools or in special schools. This issue and current statistics are explored in Chapter 2. . 2. 3 Classroom interaction In a review of the literature on classroom interaction, Christine Howe (1997) reports that gender differences are evident in a range of classroom situations. Input from boys predominated in whole class settings, with boys contributing more to discussions and attracting more attention through misbehaviour. Boys tended to dominate in physical settings by volunteering for practical demonstrations and controlling the mouse on computers. There was evidence that girls felt resentful about this, but also that they complied with it and helped to create the situation.Girls were more likely to ask for help than boys and did not seem to suffer academically because of differences in interaction. Arnot et al (1998) argue that, while classroom interaction does not seem to affect performance, it is of indirect relevance because it impacts on young people’s attitudes and learning strategies. 2. 2. 4 The influence of peers Some writers postulate that, for young men, the development of masculinity involves distancing from anything perceived as feminine or homosexual, such as the expression of emotions or showing signs of weakness or vulnerability.This process also involves the devaluing of the feminine and females (Mac an Ghaill, 1994; Salisbury and Jackson, 1996; Arnot, 1984). In an all-boys school a group of boys are designated the weak group and assigned the role of the girls in a mixed school (Arnot, 1984). This process of achieving manhood is reinforced by peer pressure and the risk of peer rejection. For young men it is important to appear physically tough at school, to rebel against authority and not to be seen to be trying too hard (Mac an Ghaill, 1994).Different peer pressures for boys and girls can play an important role in levels of achievement (Arnot et al, 1998). In a study of pre-adolescent children, Adler et al (1992) found that, for boys, athletic ability, “coolness”, defiance of authority, social skills and success with girls provided routes to popularity. Boys who were academically successful were seen as “nerds” or “brainy” and could suffer for it among their peer group. This process creates an “achievement ceiling” for boys, beyond which they risk becoming unpopular with other boys, while conversely academic success is valued by girls.Hey et al, (1999) argue that, for boys there is a tension between the pressure to develop a masculine identity, which values competition and independence and the requirements of learning, which emphasise collaboration and co-operation. This leads to attention seeking and disruptive behaviour by boys and a tendency towards defensiveness as learners. They demonstrate that helping boys to develop more collaborative learning strategies can have beneficial effects on their learning.Arnot et al (1998) suggests that schools may be involved in the creation of peer group cultures more than they realise through setting, banding and streaming, which impact on how pupils see themselves as “successes” or “failures”, and which may reinforce anti-school attitudes. 2. 2. 5 Assessment and tasks There is some evidence of gender differences in approach to and attainment in different kinds of tasks and assessments. Girls tend to communicate in extended, reflective composition and do better on sustained tasks that are open-ended and process-based.Boys, on the other hand, tend to communicate in episodic, factual, commentative detail and their learning improves when they are convinced of the value of the task (Sukhnandan, 1999; Arnot et al, 1998). It has been argued that boys’ and girls’ different tastes in reading influence their learning and response styles, with girls preferring fiction and boys preferring non-fiction (Sukhnandan, 1999). These differences in approach could go some way to explaining boys’ and girls’ preferences for different subjects in the curriculum (see Chapter 2 for an analysis of gender differences across the curriculum).Either way, it has been shown that both boys and girls do better on tasks involving content which is familiar to them from home or school (Arnot et al, 1998). Some writers have argued that the increased emphasis on coursework, brought in with the introduction of Standard Grade, has favoured girls’ approaches to assessment and that this explains the gender gap in performance. Indeed there is evidence that girls do slightly better than boys on coursework elements and that boys do better on multiple-choice tests.However, this does not explain the gender gap, because in fact girls do better overall on coursework and examinations (Sukhnandan, 1999) and girls’ advantage in coursework only has a marginal effect on the overall results (Arnot et al, 1998). The evidence on whether there was gender bias in marking or in the questions asked in examinations is reassuring. Powney (1996) found that there was no evidence of gender bias in the questions asked at Standard Grade and Arnot et al (1998) report that there was no evidence of bias in favour of girls or boys in marking examinations.Given that boys and girls tend to approach assessments and tasks differently, Arnot et al (1998) argue that a variety of assessment modes should be used in order to provide all pupils with the opportunity to produce their best performance. This is reinforced by the conclusion of Gipps and Murphy (1994), in their review of assessment and achievement. 2. 2. 6 Teaching and learning styles As noted above there is some contention about whether there are gender differences in preferred learning styles.However, it may be that males and females display overlapping tendencies towards different learning styles and that this could explain some gender differences in performance. The concept of learning styles seems worthy of further exploration because of its implications for teaching and learning. In spite of the level of disagreement in the literature, the following two points seem to be generally accepted. 1. Learning styles only represent preferences and learners can make use of other styles when necessary.Whereas learning styles may not be amenable to teaching of one kind or another it seems that met cognitive awareness of preferred learning styles encourages learners to optimise their learning experiences (Adey et al, 2000). 2. Teachers may best cope with a variety of learning styles by employing a range of teaching styles rather than attempting to match teaching to individual learning styles. The variety must include opportunities for active participation by learners because the more involved learners are, the more they are able to make use of their preferred learning styles (Adey et al, 2000).The key distinction between learning styles and learning strategies is that the latter can be taught successfully to all ages and abilities and that when it is done successfully it enhances teaching (Adey et al, 2000). Successful acquisition, however, of learning strategies is not easy as it is dependent upon a number of factors including: the context, teaching methods, the nature of the subject, learner self-esteem, motivation and meta-cognitive awareness and the habits of good and poor learners (Adey et al, 2000).Concerning the last of these factors, there is evidence to suggest that boys do not display good learning habits in their interaction skills in the classroom which in turn affect their acquisition of learning strategies (Younger et al, 1999). Younger et al argue that if the underachievement of boys is to be addressed, boys need to learn to emulate the good learning habits that girls appear to employ in their interactions. Here then is one example of how gender factors may well affect boys’ abilities to acquire what are considered to be teachable learning strategies. 2. . 7 Aspirations and post-school opportunities Women’s position in the labour market has undoubtedly changed over the past three decades and this has affected both their educational experiences and their post-school expectations and aspirations. Prior to the 1970s it was widely assumed that in Scotland (as in the UK at large) boys and girls were being educated for very different occupational and domestic roles (Riddell, 2000). During the 1970s, Gaskell (1983) reports that women expected to work, but that they saw this as secondary to their domestic responsibilities.Nowadays work is a much more central feature of women’s lives and the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC, 2000) reports that women made up almost half the workforce in the year 2000. In spite of these changes, inequalities remain. For example, in the late 1990s, women earned 81% of the average annual earnings of men in most broad occupational groups and women and men still tended to enter fairly gender-typical occupations (EOC, 2000). Lloyd (1999) reports that this is not necessarily because jobs are seen as male or female, but because young men tended to rule certain jobs out because they were poorly paid or required few skills.There is evidence, however, that the reasons do also lie with men and women aspiring to different kinds of occupations (Furlong and Biggart, 1999) and that this is related to differences in subject preferences at school (Tinklin, 2000). Although females are now on average doing better in education than males, for young women who leave school with few or no qualifications the longer-term consequences can be more severe than for young men in the same position. They are much less likely to get a job in the three years after leaving school and a significant proportion has children at an early age (Biggart, 2000).What young men can expect post-school has also changed over the past three decades. Boys were affected more than girls by the collapse of employment opportunities for 16 year olds in the late 1980s. Whereas in the past, boys would typically have left school early and entered the labour market, increasing numbers are now staying on at school and entering youth training. Arnot et al (1998) argue that post-school opportunities for young people affect their attitudes towards education and gaining qualifications and that young men and women are still receiving different signals from the labour market about male and female work opportunities. . 2. 8 Social class, parental education and ethnicity The relationship between social disadvantage and low attainment has been well-documented and has persisted over time (Paterson, 1991; Burnhill et al, 1990; Biggart, 1999; Sammons, 1995). Those with fathers in manual occupations and those with less well educated parents tend not to do as well at school as their more advantaged peers. Of most concern is the evidence of a “snowball” effect of disadvantage.Differences in attainment by social background emerge as early as Primary 1 (Croxford, 1999). By S4, children from less advantaged backgrounds are doing significantly less well than their peers. They are then less likely to stay on at school, less likely to convert their Standard Grades into Highers, less likely to apply to higher education and once they have applied, less likely to start courses than others with equivalent qualifications (Tinklin, 2000).Differences by social background do not explain gender differences: middle class girls do better than middle class boys and working class girls do better than working class boys (Tinklin, 2000). However differences by social background are clearly important when considering gender differences, because they demonstrate the inadequacy of considering gender in isolation from other social background factors. Similarly for ethnicity, Arnot et al (1998) and Sammons (1995) demonstrate differences within each gender by ethnic background.It is important to note that young people from minority ethnic backgrounds may have different assumptions about gender roles and expectations, which affect their educational attainment. For example, Riley (1985) points out those Caribbean girls assumed that girls should aim to be independent and that an education will help them transcend the low expectations of them as black women. There is clearly a need for research which looks at the interaction of gender, class and ethnicity (Powney, 1996).Furthermore, the points made in this section indicate that analyzing differences in performance by gender only is clearly inadequate, since this does not take account of differences within each gender by social background and ethnicity. 2. 2. 9 Gender and Mathematics Performance Various demographic factors are known to be related to mathematics achievement. Gender, socio-economic status, and parents’ educational level are factors that were analyzed in this study as predictors of mathematics achievement.Many variables have long been studied as predictors of mathematics achievement. However, gender issues on mathematics achievement are studied most frequently by researchers. For instance, a study through a meta-analysis reveals that males tend to do better on mathematics tests that involve problem-solving (Hyde, Fennema, and Lamon 1990). Females tend to do better in computation, and there is no significant gender difference in understanding mathematics concepts. Another study shows that females tend to earn better grades than males in mathematics (Kimball, 1989).Some recent studies have revealed that gender differences in mathematics education seem to be narrowing in many countries. However, studies indicate that as students reach higher grades, gender differences favor increase in mathematics achievement by males (Campbell, 1995; Gray, 1996; Mullis, Martin, Fierros, Goldberg, & Stemler, 2000). For instance, the results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study showed that mathematics achievement scores of each gender group were close to each other at the primary and middle school years (Beaton et al. 1996; Mullis et al. , 1997). However, in the final year of secondary school, evidence was found for gender differences in mathematics achievement. Another study, which was conducted to analyze factors that affect mathematics achievement of 11th-graders in mathematics classes with an identified gender gap, also showed that males scored higher than females on 11th grade mathematics achievement test, but this difference decreased from 10th grade (Campbell & Beaudry, 1998).In addition, gender differences in attitudes and perceptions of the usefulness of mathematics for middle school students were found statistically important (Lockheed, Thorpe, Brooks-Gunn, Casserly, and McAloon 1985; Oakes 1990). For example, female students show less interest in mathematics and have negative attitude toward mathematics. It is also reported that girls tend to learn mathematical concepts by means of rules or cooperative activities, while boys have a tendency to be in a competition to master mathematical concepts (Fennema & Peterson, 1985; Hopkins, McGillicuddy-De Lisi, & De Lisi, 1997).The literature on gender differences provides evidences that gender issues impact achievement in mathematics. Hence, it is crucial for educators and researchers to pay attention to gender differences in the design of mathematics instruction. 2. 3 Theoretical Framework A number of studies starting in the 1990s are showing statistical data that children from single-sex schools and/or classrooms are outperforming students from coeducational schools (Journal of Educational Psychology, 2002).The advantages of single-sex education for girls fall into three categories:   (a) expanded educational opportunities (b) custom-tailored learning and instruction (c) greater autonomy, especially in heterosexual relationships. The advantages of single-sex education for boys fall into two basic categories:(a) Teachers can custom-tailor their teaching style to the boys; and (b) the all boys classroom promotes a more diverse and well-rounded educational experience.Boys’ schools have a natural advantage, because they can tailor their curriculum to   topics that interest boys, and teach those topics in ways that keep the boys engaged. Many supporters of single-sex education hold that gender does make a difference in the classroom primarily single-sex education can help students learn more effectively. Gender roles can be subverted in a single-sex environment; boys will be more likely to pursue the arts, and girls more likely to pursue math and science (Kadidy& Ditty, 2001, Elliott, 1971, Cone-Wesson &Ramirez, 1998). There are neurological and hemical differences that include: the female uses the left hemisphere of the brain more often; this area of the brain According to studies (Sax, 2002) females hear better than males which would call for males to sit closer to the front of the classroom to hear instruction better; as males usually are seated in the rear of the classroom, this would be a change from the traditional seating arrangement. Also females have higher levels of estrogen in the brain, which reduce aggressive behavior and create a calmer classroom atmosphere. Without the presence of the opposite sex, students will be less distracted from their academics.As well, teachers will have the ability to devote more time to instruction and less to discipline. Scores on the main assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reveal that females in grades 4, 8, and 12 have consistently outperformed males in reading. The main assessment data from NAEP show females continued to have higher reading scores than male’s at all three grades, but there were no measurable increases in females scores when data were compared to 2005 data at grades four and eight and there was a decrease in twelfth-grade reading scores for females from 297 to 295 in 2007.Females in grades 4, 8, and 12 outperformed their males’ peers in writing in 2002 and 2005. In 2002, males made up a higher proportion of students taking AP exams in science and calculus. Males also obtained higher average scores on these examinations compared to females. 2. 4 Chapter summary CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3. 0 INTRODUCTION The chapter has a detailed description of the selected research design that was used in the study. It explains the research strategy and methodology (what will be done and how it will be done). The chapter is placed in sub topics arranged in the order below:- 3. The Research Design According to Kothari (2007) research design is what, when, how much, by what means concerning an enquiry or a study. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose, a research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for collection, measurement and analysis of data. The study will apply a case study research design; as such it was an intensive descriptive and holistic analysis of Kimumu ward, Uasin Gishu County as a single entity.It is an investigation of single entity in order to gain insight into the larger cases. According to Oso, (2005); in a case where the number of organizations that can be investigated are few, a small sample is available and an in-depth analysis is necessary, a case study is the most appropriate. The study will investigate the implications of pricing strategies on organizational performance. 3. 2 Population and sampling This part contains the targeted population and the sampled population 3. 2. 1 Study Population This study will be conducted in Kimumu ward; Uasin Gishu County.The target population will consist of all primary school pupils and teacher. Kimumu ward have been identified as a unit of analysis basically because the homogeneity of all pupils primary schools across the country and due to the limitation of time, which makes Kimumu ward the most immediate accessible location. 3. 2. 2 Sample The study will employ simple random sampling (SRS), purposive sampling and convenient sampling techniques. Simple random sampling techniques will be used to select schools to be included in the sample.Simple random sampling is a technique that selects a sample without a bias and since the target population is fairly homogenous, this technique is believes to come up with a representative sample since it ensures that each member of the target population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. Purposive sampling technique will be used to select the pupils to be issued with the questionnaire the sample. Purposive sampling is a technique whereby the researcher consciously decides who to include in the sample.Since one of the objectives is to determine gender performance of pupils in Kenya certificate of primary education of Kimumu ward, Uasin Gishu County, therefore the study will look at both genders (boy and girls) in the sampled schools. Class 8 and 7 pupils of the sampled schools will be used since they are the one closer to sit for K. C. P. E and therefore typically useful in accessing the academic performance. Convenient sampling techniques will be used to select the teachers to be issued with the questionnaires. Convenient of sampling is a technique that selects samples from those who happen to be available.Since it might be difficult to determine the sampling frame, 3-4 teachers from each sampled schools will be selected using this techniques. This will also help in case some teachers are unavailable at the time of data collection. 3. 3 Data collection 3. 3. 1 Instrumentation The study will use questionnaires. The selection of this toll have been guided by the nature of data to be collected, the time available as well as the objectives of the study. The overall aim of the study is to identify the impact of gender on performance of pupils in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. The main concern, thus, being views, opinions and attitudes.Such information can be collected through the use of questionnaire, (Bell, 199: Touliatos & Compton, 1998). The researcher intends to use semi-structured questionnaires which will enables a balance between quality and the quantity of data collected. They will use since the study is concerned with the unobservable variables. The sample size is also quite large and given the time constrains, questionnaires is the ideal tool for collecting data. The target population is also literate and unlikely to have difficulties in responding to the questionnaires. 3. 3. 2 Research ProcedureData will be collected from 70 pupils and 30 teachers from 8 sampled primary schools using a questionnaire. The questionnaire will be administered manually by the researchers with no assistant due to time and financial constrains. 3. 3. 3 Data Collection Procedure The researcher personally wills administer research tools after a prior visit that assisted in refining timings of distribution of questionnaires. It also provided a rough picture of the respondents’ expectations. The researcher mutually agreed with the respondents when the research instruments were to be administered and specifically dates of collecting the questionnaires.Adequate time was given to the respondents to respond to the questionnaire. 3. 4 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments 3. 4. 1 Reliability Reliability is the consistency with which research instrument measure what it purports to measure. The test– retest technique will be used to test the reliability of the research instruments; the test involved administering the same instrument twice to the same group of subjects with time interval of one week. 3. 4. 2 Validity Mugenda (1999) defines validity as the accuracy and meaningfulness of inferences, which are based on research results.The study will apply content validity as a measure of the degree to which data obtained from the research instruments meaningfully and accurately reflect or represent a theoretical concept. The researcher will use the expert judgment method to determine content validity. The researcher will give a copy of the questionnaire to the supervisor to check if it represents all the objectives of the study. 3. 5 Data Analysis The study will apply Qualitative and Quantitative data analysis techniques to analyze data. This will ensure that the data is analyzed in a systematic way in order to come to some useful conclusions and recommendations.Data obtained from the questionnaires, document analysis will be coded, organized, analyzed and presented using frequency tables, and percentages. REFERENCES Adey,P. , Fairbrother,R. & Wiliam,D. with Johnson,B. & Jones,C. (2000) Learning styles and strategies: a review of research, The Centre for the Advancement of Thinking, London: King’s College. Arnot,M. (1984) How shall we educate our sons? In R. Deem (ed) Co-education revisited, Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Arnot,M. , David,M. and Weiner,G. (1999) Closing the gender gap, Cambridge: Polity Press. Arnot,M. , Gray,J. , James,M. Rudduck,J. and Duveen,G. (1998) Recent research on gender and educational performance, London: OFSTED. Biggart,A. (2000) Gender and Low Achievement. Edinburgh: Centre for Educational Sociology, University of Edinburgh. Burgner,D. and Hewstone,M. 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