The Constitution reflects the Founders’ respect for what? The Constitution reflects the Founders’ respect for fundamental freedoms. Fundamental freedoms are the freedom of speech, due process, freedom of religion, equal protection of the law, and protecting citizens from cruel and unusual punishment. When the founders wrote the Constitution they were ensuring that future generations have something to build on, but at the same time they should have their own ideals but use the Constitution as a guideline. 2.What court case established the process of judicial review with its ruling by the Supreme Court? Explain why this was significant. The court case that established the process of judicial review with its ruling by the Supreme Court was Marbury v. Madison. This case was significant because it make the judges the official interpreters of the Constitution. It also gives citizens the changes to challenge laws that are written by Congress and approved by the President. If the citizens are not able to get a bill through Congress they are able to present their case in front of the Supreme Court. . What methods are available to amend the Constitution? There are two methods available to amend the Constitution: 1) Two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress, 2) Congress holding a convention. Since the constitution has been put in place only the vote of two-thirds of the both houses has been use to amend the Constitution and 27 was been ratified. Congress has never held a convention to amend the Constitution. Congress under Article V can call a convention without the permission of the President. 4. Describe and explain the system of checks and balances. Give examples.According to the text, checks and balances is a constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the three branches of government to check some acts of the other and therefore ensures that no branch can dominate (Magleby, Light, ; Nemacheck, 2011). Since the legislative branch can pass a law, the executive is the branch that checks the law by either agreeing or vetoing it. After the executive branch agrees or vetoes the law, the judicial branch apprehends the laws. Executive branch is able to check the judicial branch because they appoint the justices to the court.The legislative branch checks the executive branch by possibly cancelling the veto. 5. Based on constitutional arguments, discuss whether the federal or state government should have the right to define marriage in light of the debate over same-sex marriage. Since the 14th Amendment states, No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.I don’t think that the government should be defining marriage; the people that are evolved in the relationship should define marriage (Magleby, Light, ; Nemacheck, 2011). Many will argue that same-sex marriage should not be legal because of religious reasons, but the Constitution also states that church and state should be separate when making decisions about the country and its laws. I do believe that the laws need to change with the times. Bibliography Magleby, D. B. , Light, P. C. , ; Nemacheck, C. L. (2011). Government by the People. Boston, MA: Pearson.