Food Knowledge and Tools and Equipments

Knowledge about the different food classes is essential in culinary arts and food service business. a basic understanding of the chemical components of food, their characteristics, classifications and cookery principles greatly influence menu planning, purchasing receiving and storing of ingredients, food production, the serving of quality meals and costing. KITCHEN TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 1. Hand Tools and Small equipment * Fine China Cap or Chinols -Very fine meshed china cap used when great clarity or smoothness is needed in a liquid. -A chinois is a cone-shaped metal strainer with a very fine mesh.A chinois is used for straining stocks, sauces, soups and other items that need to have a very smooth consistency. * Pastry Wheel or Wheel Knife * A round, rotating blade, plain or fluted with a handle used to cut rolled-out dough, pastries and baked pizza. * A pastry wheel or pastry jagger is a handled tool with a thin sharp wheel * Wire Whip or Whisk * A device with loops of stainless steel wire fastened to a handle. * Skimmer * A perforated disk slightly cupped with a long handle used to skim or remove surface layers or fat, froth and scum from simmering stock, sauce or soup, stew or jam, or used to emove solid pieces from soups, stocks and other liquids. 2. Thermometer * An instrument to measure temperature essential for cooking, especially for determining meat, doneness for baking, for freezer, refrigerator, fat and sugar temperature and for ensuring defrosting and cooking in microwave ovens. * Fat Thermometer and Candy Thermometer * Determine temperatures of frying fats and sugar syrups. * Reads up to 400° F. * Meat Thermometer * A metal thermometer with the measuring element in a sharp point and a circular indicating dial, placed with its point in the thick part of a joint to indicate its internal temperature.It is inserted before cooking and left in the product during cooking. * Special Thermometers ( Oven, Refrigerator, and Freezer Thermometer ) * Used to test the accuracy of oven, refrigerator and freezer thermostat. * Instant-Read Thermometer * Thermometer that gives reading within a few seconds of being inserted in a particular food item and reads from 0°F to 220° F. However, must not be left in meats during roasting or they will be damaged. 3. Pots and Pans * Bain Marie Pan or Bain Marie Insert * Tail cylindrical stainless steel containers Used to store and hold food in water bath. Sizes: 1-36 quarts or liters. * Brazier A round, broad, shallow, heavy-duty pot with straight sides used for browning, braising, and stewing meats. Sizes: 11-30 quarts or liters. * Chafing Dish * A small portable bain-marie used to keep food warm for use at the table; may be electric or alcohol burning. * Cat Iron Skillet * A very heavy, thick bottomed frying pan used for pan-frying when a very steady, even heat is needed. * has excellent heat retention properties and can be produced and formed with a relatively low level of technology. * Non-stick pans * Pans known by various brand names like Teflon and Silverstone, with very slippery finish, but one that requires a ot of care because it is easily scratched. * are cooking pans made from or coated with materials designed to prevent food from sticking to their surface during the cooking process. 4. Knives * Boning Knife * A thin, pointed blade about 6 inches in length used for boning raw meats and poultry. * Stiff blades are used for heavier work while flexible ones are used for lighter work and filleting small to medium-sized fish. * Butcher Knife * A heavy, broad, slightly curved blade used for cutting, sectioning, and trimming raw meats. * Cleaver * A very heavy, broad blade used For cutting through bones and heavy chopping. A heavy, broad-bladed knife or hatchet used especially by butchers. * French Knife or Chef’s Knife * The most widely used knife in the kitchen for chopping, slicing, dicing and so on. * Described as having a wide blade at the heel and tapers to a point. * The blade length is 10 inches for general work. * Larger knives are for heavy cutting and choppingwhile smaller blades are for more delicate work. * Oyster Knife * A short, rigid, blunt knife with a dull edge used to open oysters. * Salad Knife or Utility Knife * The type of knife used mostly For pantry work, cutting and preparing Salad greens and fruits. Also used in carving roast poultry. * Steak Knife * A curved, pointed blade used for accurate cutting of steaks. * Paring Knife * A small pointed blade about 2 to 4 inches in length used for trimming and paring fruits and vegetables. * Clam Knife * A short, rigid, broad-bladed knife with a slight edge used to open clams and selected shellfish varieties. 5. Dinnerware * Bread and Butter Plate * A 6-inch plate used for bread, desserts and molded salads. * Cereal Bowl * a 6-inch multi-purpose deep dish used in serving cereals, salads, rice, and desserts. * Dinner Plate * a 10-inch plate used in serving the main ourse in each cover in formal dining. * Salad Plates * A 7-inch plate used to serve salads, desserts, fish or underliners for Steamware and even cereal bowls. * Soup Plate * A 9-inch deep plate used in formal Sit-down dinners. 6. Flatware * Butter Server * A small broad spatula bigger than a butter spreader. * Spoons * Spoons were designed for eating liquid and semi-liquid foods, such as soup, pudding and ice cream. * Spoons play an important part in the preparation, cooking and serving of foods. * Fork * A fork is an eating utensil that consists of a narrow handle with two, three or four tines at the other end. Two- and three-tined forks are instrumental for holding large pieces of meat, such as turkey, hams and and roasts, while carving. Other Equipments * Custard Cups * Small deep ovenware bowls occasionally Used in serving desserts and salads. * Dry Measuring Cup * Measuring cups available in 1, ? , 1/3, and ? cup sizes made of stainless steel, aluminium or plastic, either in 1 piece or nested. * Dutch Oven * A deep metal cooking pot equipped with a tight-fitting cover used to cook pot roasts and stews. * Egg Poacher * A miniature bain marie with an upper dish containing indentions each sized to hold an egg or contains a separate evice for poaching. * Enamel Ware * Cooking utensils coated with enamel to Protect it from rust and the action of acids. * Fish Boiler * A long narrow kettle with cover suitable for cooking whole fish. * Flan Ring/ Pie Ring * a plain or fluted metal ring placed on a flat baking tray or cookie sheet for baking tarts and pies. * Fluted Knife * A ridged or zigzag edged knife for decorative cutting of food materials. * Fluter * a device used to create an indentation pressed intothe edge of pie or pastry for decoration or to seal two edges pastry together. * Hibachi * An oriental type of grilling device consisting f a compartment that holds hot coals and a removable grill on top. * Larding Needle * A large needle with a wide eye, used for pulling strips of larding pork through meats. * Mallet * a wooden, metal, or plastic hammer-like device to crack ice, or flatten meat and poultry. * Pastry Blender * A handed wire tool for cutting shortening into dry ingredients in making pastries. * Reamer * A device or tool used to extract juice from sliced lemon or orange juice. * Rotisserie * a stainless steel rod with a handle used to broil meats and poultry. * Sauce Boat * An oval, shallow, wide-mouth container standing on an oval plate used to serve auces usually with a small ladle. * Skewer * A pointed wood or metal rod used for trussing joints of meats and poultry or for holding meat, fish or pieces of vegetable for grilling. * Souffle dish * A straight-sided oven-proof dish wherein souffles are baked. * Springform Pan * a deep cake pan, usually round in shape with a special clasp allowing the rim to be removed from the cake. * Trivet * a decorative metal plate on very short stand for use to hold dish on a table or on the stove as an asbestos mat or for steaming puddings in pots. * Trussing Needle * A special kind of kitchen needle bigger than he sewing needle, sometimes curved, used to tie meat, or poultry in roasting. DEFINITION OF TERMS * Al dente Italian for “to the tooth. ” It describes pasta that is cooked until it offers a slight resistance when bitten into, rather than cooked until soft. * Almond paste A creamy mixture made of ground, blanched almonds and sugar that’s often used as a filling in pastries, cakes, and confections. For best baking results, use an almond paste without syrup or liquid glucose. * Anchovy paste A mixture of ground anchovies, vinegar, and seasonings. Anchovy paste is available in tubes in the canned fish or gourmet section of the supermarket. Artificial sweeteners A category of sugar substitutes that have no nutritional value. Because they have unique attributes, they should not be substituted for other sweeteners unless a recipe calls for them specifically. * Arugula A brightly-colored salad green with a slightly bitter, peppery mustard flavor. It is also called rocket and resembles radish leaves. * Bake * To cook food, covered or uncovered, using the direct, dry heat of an oven. The term is usually used to describe the cooking of cakes, other desserts, casseroles, and breads. * Baking ammonia A compound also known as hart shorn powder that was once used as a leavening agent. It’s most often used in Scandinavian baking and is available at pharmacies and through mail order. Cream of tartar is an acceptable substitute, although cookies made with it are less crisp than those made with baking ammonia. If you use baking ammonia for baking, use caution when opening the oven door because irritating ammonia-like fumes may be produced. * Baking powder – A combination of dry acid, baking soda, and starch that has the ability to release carbon dioxide in two stages: when liquid ingredients are added and when the mixture is heated. Baking soda A chemical leavening agent that creates carbon dioxide and is used in conjunction with acidic ingredients, such as buttermilk, sour cream, brown sugar, or fruit juices, to create the bubbles that make the product rise. * Balsamic vinegar Syrupy and slightly sweet, this dark-brown vinegar is made from the juice of the white Trebbiano grape. It gets its body, color, and sweetness from being aged in wooden barrels. * Basmati rice Aromatic, long grain brown or white rice from India and California. Basmati rice is nutty and fluffy. Use as you would regular long grain rice. * BasteTo moisten foods during cooking or grilling with fats or seasoned liquids to add flavor and prevent drying. * Batter An uncooked, wet mixture that can be spooned or poured, as with cakes, pancakes, and muffins. Batters usually contain flour, eggs, and milk as their base. Some thin batters are used to coat foods before deep frying. * Blend To combine two or more ingredients by hand, or with an electric mixer or blender, until smooth and uniform in texture, flavor, and color. * Boil To cook food in liquid at a temperature that causes bubbles to form in the liquid and rise in a steady pattern, breaking at the surface. * BouillonA bouillon cube is a compressed cube of dehydrated beef, chicken, fish, or vegetable stock. Bouillon granules are small particles of the same substance, but they dissolve faster. * Bouquet garni A bundle of fresh herbs usually thyme, parsley, and bay leaf used to add flavor to soups, stews, stocks, and poaching liquids. * Candied A food, usually a fruit, nut, or citrus peel, that has been cooked or dipped in sugar syrup. * Caramelize To brown sugar, whether it is granulated sugar or the naturally occurring sugars in vegetables. * Carve To cut or slice cooked meat, poultry, fish, or game into serving-size pieces. * Chili pasteA condiment, available in mild or hot versions, that’s made from chile peppers, vinegar, and seasonings. * Chop To cut foods with a knife, cleaver, or food processor into smaller pieces. * Chutney A condiment often used in Indian cuisine that’s made of chopped fruit (mango is a classic), vegetables, and spices enlivened by hot peppers, fresh ginger, or vinegar. * Deglaze To add wine, stock or other liquid to the sediment and cooking juices left in a pan after roasting or sauteing –which is then heated to make a jus. * Dropping Consistency The consistency of cake batter when the mixture drops off the spoon with some reluctance. Filo Pastry Paper thin sheets of pastry commonly used in Greek, Eastern European and Middle Eastern cuisines. Filo is brushed with oil or butter and layered. Found in the refrigerated section of the supermarket. * Fold (to) A gentle hand mixing method used to combine a lighter, airy mixture (eg whipped eggs) with a heavier mixture. * Freezing Make sure that anything you put into the freezer is tightly sealed as it’s easy for air to get in and cause freezer burn on your food. * Glaze To coat foods, particularly meat or cakes, with syrup, jam, egg, milk or meat juice to give it a glazed surface when cooked. * GuacamoleA popular Mexican dish of mashed avocado mixed with lemon or lime juice and seasonings such as chilli. Sometimes finely chopped tomato, onion and coriander are added. Used as a dip or with other Mexican food like tacos. * Hummus A puree or dip of crushed cooked chickpeas flavoured with tahini (pounded sesame seeds), oil, garlic and lemon juice. * Infuse To extract flavour from one food into another, often by heating or steeping. * Julienne To cut vegetables into long thin matchsticks. * Loose-bottom tin Cake or flan tin with a removable base which allows the cake to be lifted out cleanly and served directly off the base. * LukewarmA temperature that feels neither hot nor cold when tested on the inside wrist – around 35? * Maldon salt A gourmet salt which comes from the Maldon area of Essex. Maldon salt flakes are used sparingly as a condiment. * Marinate To leave meat, poultry, fish, or sometimes fruit to soak in a ‘marinade’. * Mesclun A mixture of young shoots lettuces, herbs and leaves used in a salad. Available pre-packed at the supermarket. * Nonstick cooking spray This convenient product reduces the mess associated with greasing pans; it can also help cut down on fat in cooking. * Nuts Dried seeds or fruits with edible kernels surrounded by a hard shell or rind.Nuts are available in many forms, such as chopped, slivered, and halved. * Pan-broil To cook a food, especially meat, in a skillet without added fat, removing any fat as it accumulates. * Parbroil To boil a food, such as vegetables, until it is partially cooked * Parchment paper A grease- and heat-resistant paper used to line baking pans, to wrap foods in packets for baking, or to make disposable pastry bags. * Parsnip A white root vegetable that resembles a carrot. Parsnips have a mild, sweet flaor and can be cooked like potatoes. * Peel The skin or outer covering of a vegetable or fruit (also called the rind).Peel also refers to the process of removing this covering. * Pesto an uncooked sauce made from crushed garlic, basil, and nuts blended with Parmesan cheese and olive oil. * Rice To force food that has been cooked through a perforated utensil known as a ricer, giving the food a somewhat ricelike shape. * Rice vinegar A mild-flavored vinegar made from fermented rice. Rice vinegar is interchangeable with rice wine vinegar, which is made from fermented rice wine. Seasoned rice vinegar, with added sugar and salt, can be used in recipes calling for rice vinegar, though you may wish to adjust the seasonings Roast, roasting A large piece of meat or poultry that’s usually cooked by roasting. Roasting refers to a dry-heat cooking method used to cook foods, uncovered, in an oven. Tender pieces of meat work best for roasting. * Roux (roo) A French term that refers to a mixture of flour and a fat cooked to a golden- or rich-brown color and used for a thickening in sauces, soups, and gumbos. * Salsa A sauce usually made from finely chopped tomatoes, onions, chiles, and cilantro. It is often used in Mexican and Southwestern cuisine. * Saute From the French word sauter, meaning “to jump. Sauteed food is cooked and stirred in a small amount of fat over fairly high heat in an open, shallow pan. Food cut into uniform size sautes the best. * Tamari A dark, thin sauce made from soybeans. Tamari is a slightly thicker, mellower cousin of soy sauce and is used to flavor Asian dishes. In a pinch, substitute soy sauce. * Tamarind paste A thick, tart, brown Asian flavoring that comes from the fruit of a tamarind tree. * Thickeners Food substances used to give a thicker consistency to sauces, gravies, puddings, and soups. * Toast The process of browning, crisping, or drying a food by exposing it to heat.Toasting coconut, nuts, and seeds helps develop their flavor. Also the process of exposing bread to heat so it becomes browner, crisper, and drier * Vermouth White wine that has been fortified and flavored with herbs and spices. Dry vermouth is white and is used as a before-dinner drink or in nonsweet drinks, such as a martini. * Whip To beat a food lightly and rapidly using a wire whisk, rotary beater, or electric mixer in order to incorporate air into the mixture and increase its volume. * Yeast A tiny, single-celled organism that feeds on the sugar in dough, creating carbon dioxide gas that makes dough rise. Zest The colored outer portion of citrus fruit peel. It is rich in fruit oils and often used as a seasoning. To remove the zest, scrape a grater or fruit zester across the peel; avoid the white membrane beneath the peel because it is bitter. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits are plant materials from the flowers of a plant. In a meal, they are usually taken at the end as a dessert. Vegetables, on the other hand, are also edible plant materials but are cooked in the form of leaves, stalks, tubers, bulbs, roots, pods, or seeds. They may be eaten served with the main course of the meal or as a salad.Fruits and vegetables play a significant role in menus as they give highlight to an otherwise plain-looking dish. The variety of colors, shapes, textures and flavors add visual textural appeal. More important, they are good sources of sugars, vitamins, minerals, and fiber thus balancing the nutritional content of a meal. Flavor Component in Fruits and vegetables 1. Sugar Fructose, the natural sugar found in plants, provide the sweetish flavor in fruits and vegetables. The fructose content of plants increases as the fruit ripens. 2. Glutamic acid Is found in young and fresh vegetables in large amounts.When combined with salt, glutamic acid forms a product called monosodium glutamate. This explains why it is no longer necessary to add MSG or vetsin to vegetable dishes using fresh vegetables. 3. Acids Fruits and vegetables contain acids that contribute to their nutritional value. 4. Sulfur Compounds It gives the characteristic strong flavor and odor of some types of vegetables. These compounds are present in onions, leek, garlic, chives, cabbage and broccoli. 5. Tannis and Phenolic Compounds The astringent flavor in some vegetables and fruits such as santol and guava may be attributed to tannins and phenolic compounds.These do not disappear in plants over time but merely become soluble. Enzymatic Browning Is the development of undesirable brown or bluish black color upon exposure to air due to the enzymes phenolase, polyphenolase, polyphenol oxidase and oxygen. For enzymatic browning to occur, the fruits or vegetable must have the phenolic substances which, upon exposure to air, is oxidized. Prevention of Enzymatic Brown 1. By cooking fruits and vegetables. 2. By submerging cut-up vegetables of fruits in table salt solutions or by excluding oxygen. 3.By adding weak acids such as calamansi, lemon or lime juice to cut-up apples or bananas. 4. By submerging cut-up fruits or vegetables in water-sugar solutions. Factors to consider in relation to quality and use of fresh vegetables: *Freshness Generally, characterized by crispness and a bright color. It is always better to buy fresh produce early in the morning to ensure freshness. *Absence of decay or insect infestation Choose vegetables without signs of insect infestation. Fruits should be firm and smooth. Decayed and overripe produce must be avoided. *Lack of mechanical damage or injuryMust be free of molds, bruises, blemishes, and pest damage. Once the item is purchased, it should be handled with care for the product to retain its integrity. *Right degree of maturity Purchasers should be familiar with the degrees of maturity of fresh produce to be assured that the fruits and vegetables are at their best when bought. *Variety Different varieties differ in color, shape, texture and sometimes, flavor. *Good weight in relation to size Weight, rather than size, should be the basis when selecting fruits and vegetables. Heavier items are much better than lighter ones. SALAD & SALAD DRESSINGSSalad is a combination of well-chosen crisp vegetables or fruits with other ingredients served with a dressing. The word salad derived from the Latin word “sal,” meaning, salt. Through the years, the salad dressing has evolved into something more complex, acquiring a degree of sophistication. The Salad dressing is a mixture of well-seasoned liquid that can either be with or without oil. With oil, the dressing is considered an emulsion wherein the oil, the seasoned liquid become well-combined that they no longer separate. Parts of a Salad 1. Body- the main ingredient or the bulk of salad. 2.Underliner- the bedding that holds the mixture. 3. Garnishes- food ingredients that serve as decoration. 4. Dressing- a mixture of well-seasoned liquid with or without oil to add flavor, zest and color. Classifications of Salads A. According to use 1. As appetizer Should be light as it must whet rather than satisfy the appetite. 2. As accessory to the main dish Usually served as an accompaniment to the main dish or entree. The salad should be light if the main dish is heavy or hearty. 3. As main dish Are usually heavy as they are meant to satisfy the appetite. 4. As dessert It balances the tastes of the preceding courses. B.According to ingredients used 1. Garnishes Add bright touch of color and texture for added appeal. 2. Vegetable salad Is a mixture of two or more vegetables of different varieties served with a dressing. 3. Fruit salad Is a mixture of cut-up fruits served with a dressing, with the fruits contributing a natural sweetness to the salad. 4. High protein salad Usually includes a tasteful combination of meats and vegetables. 5. Gelatin salads 6. 1. Plain Gelatin – needed only for its structural importance. 6. 2. Aspics – made from unflavored gelatin for they contain other ingredients that will give the salad the desired flavor. 6. . Flavored Gelatin – fruit flavored gelatin added to fruit salads to create a more tasteful salad. Classifications of Salad Dressings 1. Temporary emulsion It is made up of two immiscible liquids – vinegar and oil, making it quite unstable. 2. Semi-permanent emulsion its consistency is similar to that of thick cream. 3. Permanent emulsion – a very stable mixture since it has egg yolk, which contains an emulsifier, called lecithin that acts as a stabilizer. 4. Cooked salad dressing – is a mixture of liquid and seasonings thickened with egg and starch, with a latter acting as a substitute for part of the yolk. TYPES OF PASTAS . Long pasta Spaghetti Arguably the most famous of all pasta forms, spaghetti are round strands that are excellent with various sauces. Spaghettini Is a thinner version of spaghetti. Its delicate shape makes it perfect with light and spicy sauces such as tomato, fish and oil-based. Liguine This is a thin, slightly flattened pasta that look like a tongue, thus its name. It is often served with oil, butter and thin sauces. 2. Ribbons Fettucine Also known as trenette, fettucine is suited to medium heavy and rich sauces. Tagliatelle Is a slightly wider than fettucine and is the classic partner of the Bolognese sauce.It can also be combined with rich, hearty sauces. Pappardelle These very wide ribbons, also called larghissime, which could either be straight edged or saw-edged. 3. Tubes Macaroni Generally this term refers to a variety of tubular pastas. They can be served with medium or hearty sauces or in soups. Rigatoni These are large, grooved tubes which go well with meat sauces, fresh tomato sauces, and vegetable sauces. Cavatappi These corkscrew, which are larger version of the fusilli, go well with a variety of sauces which cling the pasta’s ridges and holes. 4. Special forms FarfalleThese are flat, rectangular noodles that are pinched in the center to form bowties. It is excellent with oil-based sauces, butter sauces, cheese sauces and tomato based sauces that gettrapped within their folds. Conchiglie Are ridged shells that are available in variety of sizes, with the smallest ones, stuffed. These are suited to tomato, meat, and butter sauces. Fusilli corti These are like short springs that are perfect with chunky sauces and vegetable sauces that wrap around their shape. 5. Stuffed pasta Lasagne These are long pasta sheets which are prepared by layering them with meat or vegetable filling and baking them. TortelliThese stuffed, little pasta rings contain meat or cheese and are usually served with cream sauce or with broth. Cannelloni Different kind of fillings can be spread on these rectangular pasta sheets. They are then rolled up and baked. 6. Colored pasta Plain Made from eggs, flour, salt and sometimes, oil, plain egg pasta remains in a class of its own. It usually accompanies cream sauces, with its color ranging from plate to rich yellow. Spinach It is made by adding chopped cooked pasta to the eggs in the pasta dough mixture. Tomato The color of red pasta is achieved by the addition of tomato puree or concentrate to the basic fresh pasta recipe.GENERAL TYPES OF RICE 1. Long-grained rice – Long grained rice is high in amylose. It absorbs more water and is gelatinized at a higher temperature. If properly prepared, it retains its shape well as it swells. 2. Short-grained rice – Short grained rice is high in amylopectin. It is cohesive and sticky, tends to split on ends and becomes less distinct in outline. STARCHES Starch, the reserved carbohydrates of plants, has several functions in food preparation. It can be used as a thickener in sauces and as a thickener in sauces and as a stabilizer for beverages and dressings. PRINCIPLES IN STARCH COOKERY 1. DextrinizationThe process of dextrinization takes place when starch is subjected to dry heat. The starch chain is reduced in length to shorter molecules called dextrins. 2. Gelatinization It occurs when the starch is heated with water resulting in the swelling of starch granules due to water absorption. Swelling may take place either in cold water or during heating. CHANGES IN GELATINIZATION OF STARCH * hydration and swelling to several times original sizeloss of birefringence * increase in clarity * marked, rapid increase in consistency and attainment of peak * “dissolution” of linear molecules and diffusion from ruptured granules. with heat removal, retrogradation of mixture to a paste-like mass of gel. FACTORS INFLUENCING VISCOSITY a. Concentration of starch * the higher the concentration of starch, the greater is its potential viscosity. b. Source of starch * the thickening ability of starches varies with the kind of starch used. c. Temperature * Gelatinization begins at temperature and is completed only when the temperature that approaches boiling is achieved. d. Effect of sugar * sugar competes with starch for water in a starch mixture. e. Effect of adding acid * when a mixture of acid and starch is heated, starch molecules become hydrolyzed. . Effect of dextrinization * in brown sauce, dextrinized flour is used in greater amounts to correct viscosity and to give a characteristic toasted flavors. g. Thoroughness of dispersion * Starch needs to be thoroughly dispersed otherwise the mixture would be lumpy and the texture and appearance undesirable. LUMP FORMATION The primary cause of lump formation is the inadequate dispersion of starch. This occurs when starch starts to swell before it has been thoroughly dispersed in fine particles throughout the mixture. Inadequate stirring and clumping of starch granules also hinder starch dispersion thus causing lumps. . Gelation it is a process of gel formation wherein a semi-solid or solid material forms when water is trapped by a network formed in preparing hot paste. 4. Syneresis or “Weeping” this takes place when liquid is slowly released from a gel structure when a cut is made through the starch network. GRAVY The preparation of gravy varies according to the type of drippings used. Drippings are the fat or liquid that accumulates after the meat has been fried, roasted, baked, or steamed. Methods of cooking gravy 1. Roux Method General Method: 1. Remove drippings from the pan and measure. 2.Measure 2 tablesspoons of gravy for every cup of gravy desired. Return the gravy to the pan. 3. Stir in the flour directly into the drippings until the mixture is smooth. 4. Add salt and the measured amount of cold liquid carefully. 5. Stir cold gravy constantly as it is brought to a boil. Proportions 2 T flour1 cup liquid 2 T drippings? teaspoon salt 2. Kettle Method General Method 1. Shake flour with a small amount of cold liquid vigorously in a tight container until all lumps are gone. 2. Stir into the drippings 3. Stir mixture constantly as the gravy is heated to boiling. The result is a thinner gravy than a roux.Qualities of a good gravy 1. Smooth 2. Well-seasoned 3. Devoid of fat film CREAM SOUPS A cream soup is based on athin white sauce also called bechamel sauce milk that has been thickened with roux, with heavy cream added as a finishing touch. Qualities of a well-prepared cream soup 1. Smooth 2. Free of fat film 3. Well-seasoned 4. Pleasing appropriate color 5. Should have the viscosity of heavy cream MILK is the whole fresh and clean lacteal secretion of the mammary glands which serves as a source of nourishment for young mammals. Composition of milk 1. Fat 2. Lactose 3. Proteins 4. Immunoglobulins 5.Lipase 6. Minerals 7. Vitamins 8. Figment Market forms of Milk * Artificial -This is made from a mixture of ingredients like soybean, milk, and sugar. * Buttermilk- is the product that remain after fat has been removed from milk or cream. * Certified milk- this has undergone processing but still contains all milk constituents. * Concentrated milk- concentrated milk is available in three forms. a. Evaporated Milk b. Sweetened Condensed milk c. Dried Milk * Whole milk- this is whole milk its composition has not been alterd from the time it was collected from the animal. Classifications of whole milk a.Raw Milk b. Pasteurized Milk c. Sterilized Milk * Flavored Milk- this type of milk has a sweetener and flavouring agent added to it. * Cultured Milk- this is milk to which a bacteria has been added to produce lactic acid from lactose. MILK PRODUCTS 1. Cream The fatty component of milk, cream is available in various types with varying fats contents. 2. Butter It is the fat component that separates from buttermilk when cream is churned. Butter contains a minimum of 80% milk fat. The fat in butter, called butterfat, contains volatile fatty acids and diacetyl which is responsible for the butter flavour. . Margarine Unlike butter, margarine does that came from cream. It is made from milk in which fat has been removed. Margarine contains vegetable fats with additional artificial flavouring and color in the form of beta-carotene 4. .Ice cream It is a frozen mixture of cream, milk, sugar, flavouring, and stabilizers which contains 10 to 20% butterfat. Milk Cookery One cannot underestimate the value of milk in food preparation. Milk is important not only for its ability to be used as a dispersing medium but also for its nutritive content. The following are principles to be remembered in milk cookery.Milk Cookery Problems * Scum Formulation Scum, which consists primarily of casein, results when the milk proteins coagulate during its evaporation. It is usually occurs in evaporated milk because of its high concentration of casein. To prevent this is to employ a slow rate of heating. * Curdling This is caused by the addition of acid in milk. In cookery, curdling of milk can be done by the addition of lemon juice or vinegar to cream to produce sour cream. * Scorching This is caused by the coagulation of protein deposited on the bottom and sides of the pan where milk is heated. * Bubbles in CustardA bubble in custard is due to overcooking. This results to a porous product which is undesirable because of the holes present. WHIPPING CREAM It is whipping cream which has the highest percentage of fat. This high fat content promotes the stability of whipped foam. Whipping is done when the cream is doubled and when peaks that form hold their shape. Overbeating would yield a watery product. CHEESE Cheese is a dairy product that results from the coagulation of the milk casein with an acid such as rennet or lactic acid. Types of Cheese * Natural Cheese it has a sharper flavour than processed cheese.As the term implies, natural cheese is made from natural methods. It is produced from milk that has been ripened with an acid. Natural Cheese can be classified on the basis of the following * means of clothing * amount of ripening * firmness or source of milk * Processed Cheese this has a milder flavour as compared with natural cheese. In addition to milk processed cheese contains natural cheese and vegetable oil or/and animals fat. It can be categorized on the basis of * moisture * fat content EGGS Egg refers to poultry or fowl products. The versatility of eggs is evident in its presence in numerous food items.Eggs may be eaten cooked in its shell, fried or poached or may be combined with other ingredients to produce another dish. STORAGE Eggs should be stored properly to prevent increase in alkalinity and bacterial growth. They should ba stored in cool, dry place to retard deterioration as enzymatic activity is greater at room temperature. FACTORS INFLUENCING COAGULATION 1. Protein in Eggs a. Ovalbumin Ovalbumin, which occurs in large quantities, can be readily coagulated by mechanical agitation such as beating b. Ovamucin It is a protein which provides the structure of the thick white part of the egg. 2. Temperature . Dilution of proteins in other substances 4. Addition of acids 5. Presence of salts EGGS COOKERY 1. SOFT-COOKED: Lower large eggs into gently simmering (not boiling) water. Cook 3–4 minutes for soft-cooked, 4–5 minutes for medium-cooked. Remove from pan and run under cold water. 2. SCRAMBLED: The secret to scrambled eggs is low heat and constant stirring. Melt 2 tbsp. butter in a heavy pan, add 3 eggs whisked with 1 tbsp. cream and cook slowly until just set. 3. OMELETTE: The trick here is a well-seasoned or nonstick pan. Work quickly over medium-high heat. Lift omelette edges to let liquid egg flow underneath.Don’t overcook; the center should be moist. 4. POACHED: Crack eggs into buttered poaching cups. Lower into a pan of boiling water that comes just below the rim of the cups. Cover, lower the heat, and simmer for 4 minutes. Remove from water and slide the eggs from the cups onto buttered toast. 5. OVER EASY: Melt 2 tsps. of butter in a heavy skillet. Crack eggs onto a saucer, then slide them gently into the pan. Reduce heat, then spoon the butter over the whites. Cook for 2–3 minutes. Turn with a spatula and cook for another 30 seconds. 6. SHIRRED: Preheat oven to 400°. Put 1 tsp. elted butter in each small baking dish. Crack two eggs into each dish. Season with salt and pepper. Cover tightly with foil and bake for 7 minutes. For variation, add 3 tbsp. chopped ham or 2 tbsp. heavy cream. STAGES IN BEATING EGGWHITES 1. Foamy/Frothy 2. Soft peaks 3. Stiff peaks 4. Overbeaten/Dry MEAT COOKERY Meat is regarded as the most expensive item in a meal. Despite this, universal preference for meat has spawned its popularity among food service establishments. Meat is a prime source of nutrients, with protein at the forefront. It also contains a significant amount of fat, phosphorus, and iron.The most widely used types of red meat are pork, beef, and lamb. Other types of red meat include carabeef, chevon, horsemeat, rabbit, and venison. Importance of Fats in Meat Cookery 1. Tenderness 2. Juiciness 3. Flavor 4. Appearance Market Forms of Meat * Fresh Meat * Frozen Meat * Chilled Meat * Canned Meat * Cured Meat Classification of Meat Cuts According to Tenderness * Tough Cuts * Less Tender Cuts * Tender Cuts POULTRY The food service industry has a high regard for poultry products due to its popularity and availability in addition to its relatively low cost, considering its high nutritional value.Poultry meat, compared with other types of meat, is lower in calories when eaten without the skin, making it a good option for thos who prefer low-fat food. Poultry consists of domesticated birds such as chicken, duck, goose and turkey. Chicken Parts Chicken consists of three major parts: 1. White Meat This includes the white, fleshy part of the chicken such as the breast. 2. Dark Meat The dark meat parts include the legs, drumsticks, wings, neck. 3. Entrails These are animals internal organs such as liver, heart and gizzard. Market Forms of Poultry * Live Poultry * Whole Poultry * Dressed Poultry * Drawn Poultry * Ready-to-cookPRICIPLES OF COOKERY * As with other high-protein foods: * Cook at a low temperature (keeps it tender) * High temperatures toughen protein * The tenderness of the poultry determines the suitable cooking method * More tender poultry can handle dry heat methods * Less tender Moist heat methods * Most poultry is ready-to-cook when you buy it * Inspect it * Remove all pin feathers & hair * Rinse the cut pieces in cold water * Dry the washed poultry with a paper towel * Thaw frozen poultry in the fridge for 24 hours (bottom shelf) * Boneless poultry is more expensive * You pay for the butcher to remove the bonesConsider removing the bones yourself to save. FISH AND SHELLFISH Fish may be classified as vertebrate or invertebrate. They may or may not be covered with scales. Shellfish, on the other hand, is encased in a shell and is classified either as a mollusk or crustacean. Mollusks like oysters, clams, mussles, and scallops have a soft structure and are either totally or partially enclosed in a hard shell composed of minerals. Crustaceans like shrimps, lobster, and crab have segmented bodies and crustlike shell coverings. How to Maintain Fish Quality The quality of fish can be maintained through any of the following methods: 1.Keep fish in the shade. 2. Use of shaved/cracked ice. 3. Use refrigerated water or brine. 4. Used refrigerated containers. Market Forms Fish may be purchased in any of the following forms. * Live fish * Whole or round * Drawn fish * Dressed fish * Fillets * Sticks (boneless) * Steaks Shellfish Shellfish are available in the following market forms: * Live. This is considered as the best form to buy since it guarantees freshness. * Whole. These are shellfish marketed in the form in which they were caught are no longer live. * Shucked. The shellfish have been removed from the shell. * Headless.This is shellfish with the head removed. * Cooked. This is basically shellfish cooked with its shell. * Cooked meat. Frozen or canned shellfish such as crab fat(taba ng talangka) fall under this category. Fish Cookery Fish is cooked not only to destroy microorganisms but also to improve its taste and texture. It may be cooked by employing either dry heat or moist heat method. Principles of Fish Cookery 1. Fish should be cooked in the least possible time to prevent moisture, flavour, and nutrient loss. 2. Fish that is not be immediately cooked should be completely wrapped in a clean container and refrigerated. 3.Basting baked fish is a way of keeping it from drying out. BAKERY PRODUCTS Baking is a method of cooking using dry heat of an oven. It is done to develop a different type of food product from the raw materials as well as to extend the products shell life by subjecting it to heat. The basic ingradients used for baking are flour, sugar, eggs, salt, and fat. * Flour Types of flour * all-purpose flour * cake flour * bread flour * whole wheat flour * Sugar * Granulated sugar * Brown sugar * Confectioner’s sugar/ Powdered sugar * Caster sugar * Eggs In baked products, eggs provide structure and richness aside from nutition. t acts asa leavening agent which makes the cake rise. The yolk provides an attractive yellow color giving the cake a rich appearance. * Salt Salt enhances the flavour of other ingredients and extends the shell life of baked goods by inhibiting the action of acid-forming bacteria. Only refined salt, not rock salt, is used in baking. * Fat Fat helps produce a tender and moist product. The addition of fat also yields a rich and light product. Types of Fat * Butter * Margarine * Oil * Shortening or hydrogenated fat * Liquid Liquids hold the dough or butter together thus blending all the ingredients. Types of Liquid * Water Fruit Juices * Milk * Leavening Agents Leavening or leavening agents make the product rise, giving it a light and airy texture. 1. Cake leaveners Baking Powder it is a chemical leavening agent which, when combined with moisture and heat, generates carbon dioxide. Baking Soda Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda generates carbon dioxide upon contact with an acid. 2. Bread leavener Compressed/Cake/Fresh/ Yeast It is a moist mixture of starch and yeast that dissolves in water at a temperature of 35 ? C (95 ? F). Dry Yeast Active dry and instant dry yeast are the two types of dry yeast. Active dry yeast dissolves in water at 40-40 ?C (105-115 ? ) while instant dry yeast can be directly added to flour. The latter can keep for several months if stored in a cool, dry place. SPICES AND CONDIMENTS Spices are vegetable aromatics obtained from the seeds and barks of plants that are used to season and flavour food. Herbs, which come from the leaves of aromatics plants, are also used to add flavour to dishes. Condiments are food items that contribute flavour to food. Some Spices * Parsley * Paprika * Pepper * Rosemary * Saffron * Sage * Turmeric * Tarragon * Thyme Condiments often used are: * Bagoong * Banana catsup * Heko * Patis * Toyo * Suka

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