Sainio Nekongo Grade: 11c Task 1. Research and provide examples of the following literary terms: 1. Simile- A simile is a direct comparison that always contains word as or like. Examples: He is as wealthy as Bill Gate. Her personality is like a bubble in a bottle of champagne. 2. Metaphor- A metaphor is a comparison without the use of as or like. It refers to a person or object (as) being (like) another. The comparison is Implied rather than stated directly. Examples: He is a half witch. 3.Personification-A trope or figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given human qualities or abilities. Examples: The wind stood up and gave a shout. The road isn’t built that can make it breathe hard. 4. Litotes- Is a figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an Affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. Litotes uses a negative and an opposite to understate what is intended. Examples: He is no Einstein. (He is academically weak) 5. Hyperbole-An Hyperbole is an over –exaggeration, not meant to be taken literally. It aims to create humor or to emphasize a point.Examples: The teacher complained that she had had hundreds of interruption that day. She prepared enough food to feed an army. 6. Paradox- A paradox is a seemingly absurd or contradictory statement when analyzed, is found to be true. The opposites are not next to each other, but are found in the same sentence. Examples: You will kill him with your kindness. (Your kind deeds are doing more harm than good. ) She is only happy when she has something to worry about. (A happy worrier. ) 7. Euphemism – It expresses an unpleasant or uncomfortable situation in a more sensitive, kind and tactful manner.The purpose is to soften the blow, protect feelings or to be politically correct. Example: The camp forbids any form of chemical stimulants. (Drugs and Alcohol) 8. Ellipsis- It is the act of leaving out a word or words from a sentence deliberately, when the meaning can be understood without them. The three dots (. . . ) are used to show that a word or words have been left out. Example: “But, I thought he was . . . ” 9. Prepetition- It refers to an event arising before the commencement of the bankruptcy case that is before the filling of the bankruptcy petition.This is not a literary term because it is not used in figurative or nonliteral sense, and it is not used to express language by using its usual literal meaning. I believe that this is a typing error, made when the writer added a “P” in front of a literary term “Repetition”. Repetition- Is the simple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line, with no particular placement of the words in order to provide emphasis. Example: “We must all hang together or assuredly we shall hang separately. ” 10. Pun- a Pun is a clever play on words, alike in sound but different in meaning.The double meaning is used to convey humor. They are used in headlines to grab attention and also in jokes or riddles. Example: Cricket captain stamped. 11. Suggestion- an idea or a plan that you mention for somebody else to think about. Example: “Children should refrain from criminal activity” suggests the inspector general. 12. Irony- The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. The intention is for the opposite to be understood. Examples: “I can’t wait for my detention on Friday afternoon. ” Walking into the empty cinema, the woman exclaimed,” fortunately, we booked” 13.Sarcasm- sarcasm, like irony, occurs when one thing is said, but something else is intended or understood. However, sarcasm is used with the express purpose of hurting, insulting or humiliating. Examples: “You must have worked very hard to be bottom of the class. ” 14. Rhetorical- is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked in order to make appoint. The question is used as a rhetorical device, posed for the sake of encouraging its listener to consider a message or viewpoint. A rhetorical question expects no answer. Example: “Why are we allowing stress to become an invisible enemy? ”Poem: “LITTLE BOY CRYING” Task 2 Relationship between the father and his son in this poem is shown in different ways, using different themes and literal devices such as personification, metaphor and imagery It depicts an angry, sad and frustrated boy whose mind is full of resentment, because of the heartless and cruel behavior of his father. The poet use of a metaphor in the first stanza “your frame so recently relaxed now tight” (line 6) highlights the perplexed mind of the child. He is very unnerved by this unpleasant slaughter of his hopes of an ecstatic pastime, and his mind is full of spiteful feelings of his father.The poet use of imagery “swimming tears “, “splashing your bare feet” and “angling for a moment’s hint”, shows that the boys tries try to catch a glimpse and of guilt in his father’s eyes and to make his father realize the anguish he is going through. The use of metaphorical phrase “ogre towers above you” and “grim giant” displays the father as a very dominant person over the child who is comparatively extremely defenseless and vulnerable and it also depicts the father as a negative person and his son unequivocally hates and loathes him. I do agree that the boy finally learnt a lesson from the father’s capital punishment.The father is extremely concerned about the boy and he does not take any pleasure in making his son cry but, even if he is in a great dilemma, he chooses to teach his child a lesson than appeasing him, “wavering hidden behind that mask”. Play: KING LEAR Task 4 In this play many characters tend to value appearance above the reality, illusion above the truth and they have a false perception of other characters because they want to see, hear and believe what they think it suits them most and they tend to turn a blind eye on reality. There are also those who present themselves falsely, either to gain advantage or to reveal truth.The play starts off with Lear, as he wishes to be treated as a king and enjoy the title, but does not wish to have to deal with the hassle of governing the country. This is mirrored in his test he gives to daughter, where he asks “which of you shall we say doth love us most? ”(1. 1. 48) the way this question is phrased already demonstrates that he values a flattering public display of love over real love. Despite the fact that Cordelia, Lear’s favorite daughter refuses to partake in his game causes him to banish her from the kingdom and his close ally Kent. He confuses declarations of love with love itself.He asks only for the appearance, he does not recognize the real love of Cordelia from her single word, ‘nothing’. He mistakes Cordelia’s monosyllable, ‘nothing’ as an insult. When he retaliates with the quip ‘nothing will come of nothing’ and he does not recognize that this truth will apply specifically to him. Instead he values Goneril and Regan’s fake sense of fawning over Cordelia’s demonstration of sincere sense of filial duty. He believes his two older daughters’ sycophantic professions of love, rewarding them with his kingdom. Lear does not recognize his good retainer Kent after long years of service because of Kent’s disguise.Lear is quick to accept him at face value, without any attempt to gain a deeper understanding of him. Even after reconciliation with Cordelia, Lear mistakes appearance for reality. He believes Cordelia to be alive when she is, in reality, dead. Secondly, in this play we read about the second character that is also unable to establish the difference, in his mind, between what people are saying and doing, and what these people’s true motives are behind their action. His fate parallels Lear’s when his choice of appearance over reality puts him at the mercy of his evil, ungrateful child.When Edgar, the good son in disguise as Poor Tom, a madman, pretends to lead his blind father to his blind father to his death at the cliff of Dover, Gloucester, through the illusion of death, is led to an acceptance of afflictions of life. Ironically, the truth kills Gloucester when Edgar reveals his identity. Gloucester sees himself differently from the people around him; he feels that he is a royal, respected man, holding some power and status. Lear’s evil daughters, however, decide that Gloucester is a traitor by advising Lear to escape to Dover; that is their reality.For Lear and Gloucester, they allow the deception of their children to destroy them; they value people and situation by appearance, and they have perceptions for themselves which are not realistic. Similarly, we leant that a person cannot accept anything at a face value but must search for deeper truths and learn to recognize and avoid deceit. Play: KING LEAR Task 3 ‘Of all the play’s villains in King Lear, Edmund is the most complicated villain character in this play. He is morally bad, evil and he is responsible for causing many harms and wreaking destruction upon virtually many character in this play.He is a perfect schemer and an unscrupulous character that highly portrays his eagerness to seize any opportunity and does anything to attain his goal. In act 1, scene 2, line 1-22, Edmund delivers soliloquy expressing his dissatisfaction with society’s attitude toward bastard. He bitterly resent his legitimate half-brother, Edgar who stands to inherit their father’s estate. He resolves to do away with Edgar and seize the privileges that society has denied him. In his soliloquy he talks of his forged letter which he will use to discredit his brother and deceives his father to place Edgar in a bad light.His serial treachery is not merely self-interested; it is a conscious rebellion against the social order that has denied him the same status as Gloucester’s legitimate son Edgar. “Now, gods stand up for bastards” Edmund commands, but in facts he depends not on divine aid but on his own initiative (1. 2. 22). He rejects the “plague of custom” (1. 2. 3) that makes society disdain him and dedicates himself to “nature”(1. 2. 1) that is raw and unconstrained existence. After his betrayal of Edgar and his father, Cornwall, Regan’s husband, becomes like a new father to Edmund, as he also has an opportunistic bent.Edmund’s affairs with Goneril and Regan tie the two subplots together very well, although the relationships are not presented in detail, and they do not exist in the source material for Edmund, Plexitrus. He does not appear to have as much affection for the two sisters as they do for him, and although he was effective against his father and brother, he cannot effectively play the two sisters off against each other It is notable that when he speaks to Goneril and Regan, he does not speak well, whereas in other situations he speaks very well – this is partially due to his trying to conceal his involvement with both of them.Edmund is the sisters’ lust object, rather than true love, although he himself does not realize this. The death of Oswald plays the main role in the disclosure of the truth and this highly results in the death of Edmund. In act 4, scene 6, after Edgar injures Oswald, he hopes to prevent bloodshed by unsealing his letter than killing him. This letter actually contains evidence that Goneril and Edmund are plotting to murder Albany. Edgar is appalled at this discovery against the life of Albany he hands him the letter at right time.Albany charges Edmund for capital treason and he challenges him to a duel. He calls forward any person to testify that Edmund is a traitor, the disguise Edgar enters, they fight and Edmund gets mortally wounded and he shows a flicker of weakness, and he eventually dies repenting to his villainy. Even if Edmund succeeds in deceiving his brother and betraying his father, he never finds true love. The community always regards him illegitimate. He is rare visible in peoples’ eye (2. 1. 1) “look, sir, I bleed” he wants his father pay attention on him and gives him the love he need. The two older daughters of Lear regard him as their lust object rather than true love, although he himself does not realize this. I do not find Edmund as sympathetic character because throughout this play Edmund is not kind to other characters and he does care about their problems. He is not showing sympathy towards Lear when he is not storm all alone without any shelter and he finally orders the killing of Cordelia without showing sympathy to Lear’s mental condition.