Literature Review: Bully-Victims

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a literature review of the topic proposed for completion of the final project. Bullying has become an ongoing global phenomenon. In particular are bully/victim behaviors and its impact on bully-victim cycles with K-12 students. This project intends to explore the research regarding the dichotomy of bullying and victim behavior, specifically bullies who have previously been victim or are currently victims of bullying.Research has demonstrated that more often than not hurt people often hurt other people. The purpose and goal of this study is to demonstrate how bully victims potentially evolve into bullies thereby causing a cyclical bully-victim phenomena. “Bullying has been conceptualized as a distinct type of aggression displayed through physical, verbal, relational and cyber interactions (Cook, Williams, Guerra, Kim and Sadek, 2010). Early research tended to only view bullying from two angles: the bully and the victim (Cook et al. , 2010).However there is a third group emerging who bully and are bullied. These individuals are what the Edmonson and Zeman (2009) termed as “bully-victims”, as they experience both realities in different circumstances. In their qualitative research on female bully-victims Edmondson and Zeman (2009) interviewed a small sampling of school aged girls and women in a university and after-school group about why they hit boys, their first experiences in fights and how they strike back when threatened. Their findings indicated what previous studies reported, which was victimization nd aggression often begins at home by siblings thereby extending bullying behaviors to peers at school and possibly simultaneously experiencing victimization at school (Edmondson and Zeman, 2009). The study revealed the complex nature of bully-victims. The authors found anger is a dominant factor in this continuum and thereby feeds both the victim and bully reaction/response. The United States government has taken a closer look at this dichotomous nature on the website stopbulling. gov (2012), which references research conducted by Olweus and Linber (2010) revealing less than five percent of both boys and girls experience this phenomena.However, research may be excluding the impact of home and community factors that instigate bullying victimization as explored in the Edmondson et al. (2009) study. This present research seeks to explore bully-victim as not simply a school-based created phenomena, but developing from other organic experiences within the home and the community. This kind of research makes an impact on the work of school counselors and the counseling profession at large by helping these professionals serve youth identified as bullies and determine if the behavior is directly impacted by a hurt me/hurt back attitude.In a study examining variation in attitudes toward aggressive retaliation and perceptions of safety among bullies, victims and bully-victims using data from a large school-based survey of grades 6-10, Bradshaw, O’Brennan and Sawyer (2008) hypothesized that like bullies, bully-victims would also believe that retaliating aggressively was appropriate. This expectation turned out to be true when compared to the low-involvement in bullying group studied (Bradshaw et al. , 2008). The authors also discovered among the low-involvement, bully, and bully-victim groups, the bully-victims reported feeling the least safe at school (Bradshaw et al. 008). Further, bully-victims were more likely to have witnessed bullying acts than any other group studied. This raises awareness to the social support students feel from parents, teachers and peers. In a study on perceived social support and bullying in an urban middle school, Demaray and Malecki (2003) determined students who are victims and bully-victims feel less supported by their classmates, more than likely resulting from being on the receiving end of bullying from peers at school.Victims in this case may at least be offered empathy from classmates, yet are less likely to be empathetic to the bully-victim which experiences both bullying and victimization. Once again, this makes bully-victims unique and more complex. There are major inconsistencies in research, as identified in an article by Solberg, Olweus and Endresen (2007) asking the question if bullies and victims at school are the same pupils. When estimating the prevalence of bully-victims in 10 studies using bully-victim as a basis of classification with similar populations, the percentages varied between 0. 4 and 29% (Solberg et al. , 2007).This has been a particularly confusing part of this present research project, in that classification criteria, definitions and other measurements may be used differently in studies on the topic. If there are inconsistencies with determining who and what the bully-victim is, surely there are major gaps in understanding the possible cyclical nature of bully-victims. Solberg et al. (2007) acknowledges how unfortunate it is that these variations exist, telling very little of the prevalence across grade/age the bully-victim persona exists. The authors do however recognize this group as “at risk” according to most research on the phenomena.There is a power imbalance that makes bully-victims unique from just aggressive victims (Solberg et al. , 2007). For the sake of this study, this particular distinction makes all the difference in how a bully-victim is conceptualized. There is not just an element of anger, as mentioned before as characteristic of both bullies and victims. It is also the unique determination of bullies to display aggression as an opportunity to gain power, reverence and reputation of dominating a particular situation (Solberg et al. , 2007). Connecting this desire for power with a previous loss of power in a similar or different reality of life (e. g. ome, church or sports) can help inform predictions of how victims become bullies and dwell in a dichotomous reality deserving specialized attention and study. Solberg and colleagues (2007) in examining prevalence data of studies on bully-victims payed special attention to possible age trends and gender differences. The authors found that the bully-victim groups constituted a very small portion of victims, (10% for girls and 20% for boys). However, the overlap of bully-victims out of the bullies was much higher, (50% in lower grades and 10% in higher grades). Therefore to get a more adequate picture research must explore these overlaps.This research demonstrates how these overlaps matter to how the cycle of bullying and victimization occur and should help mental health professionals understand the difference between connected retaliation bullying behaviors and isolated and intentionally unkind behaviors. Previous methods to conducting research on bullying have often been skewed, as stated before, by differences in defining the characteristics that make up the bully-victim. The bully-victim, is both bully and victim, while bully/victim can often mean bully and/or victim. The confusion is explored in the Solberg et al. 2007) article and has been an ongoing issue for the purpose of this study. Although this is true, there are both valuable quantitative and qualitative methods that can help better define bully-victim and the potential cyclical nature nuances of the phenomena. References Cook, C. R. , Williams, K. R. , Guerra, N. G. , Kim, T. E. , ; Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83. doi:10. 1037/a0020149 Edmondson, L. , ; Zeman, L. D. (2009). Hurt people hurt people: Female bully-victims.Reclaiming Children and Youth, 18(3), 24-28. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. library. capella. edu/docview/852770029? accountid=27965 Stopbullying. Gov (2012). Bully prevention and response base training module. Retrieved from http://www. stopbullying. gov/prevention/in-the-community/community-action-planning/prnt_friendly_speaker_notes092112. pdf Bradshaw, C. P. , O’Brennan, L. M. , & Sawyer, A. L. (2008). Examining variation in attitudes toward aggressive retaliation and perceptions of safety among bullies, victims, and Bully/Victims. Professional School Counseling, 12(1), 10-21.Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. library. capella. edu/docview/213337301? accountid=27965 Demaray, M. K. & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 471-489. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. library. capella. edu/docview/219655304? accountid=27965 Solberg M. E. , Olweus, D. and Endresen, I. M. (2007). Bullies and victims at school: Are they the same pupils? The British Psychological Society, 77(2), 441-464. doi: 10. 13481000709906X105689

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