Marketing Orientation

Market orientation perspectives include the decision-making perspective (Shapiro, 1988), market intelligence perspective (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990), culturally based behavioural perspective (Narver and Slater, 1990), strategic perspective (Ruekert, 1992) [1] and customer orientation perspective (Deshpande et al. , 1993). [2] The two most prominent conceptulizations of market orientation are those given by Kohli and Jaworski (1990) and Narver and Slater (1990). While Kohli and Jaworski (1990) considers market orientation as the implementation of the marketing concept, Narver and Slater (1990) considers it as an organisational culture.Kohli and Jaworski (1990) defined market orientation as “the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization-wide responsiveness to it” [3] According to them, the marketing concept is a business philosophy, whereas the term market orientation refers to the actual implementation of the marketing concept. They added that “a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of individuals and departments within the organization. On the other hand, Narver and Slater (1990) defined market orientation as “the organization culture that most effectively and efficient creates the necessary behaviours for the creation of superior value for buyers and, thus, continuous superior performance for the business. ” [4] As such, they consider market orientation as an organisational culture consisting of three behavioral components, namely, i) customer orientation, ii) competitor orientation and iii) interfunctional coordination. Market orientation measurement scalesIn order to measure market orientation, the two most widely used scales are MARKOR [5] and MKTOR [4] The mktor scale is a 15-item, 7-point Likert-type scale, with all points speci? ed. In this measure, market orientation is conceptualised as a one dimensional construct, with three components, namely: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination. The simple average of the scores of the three components is the market orientation score. On the other hand, the markor scale is a 20-item, 5-point Likert scale, with only the ends of the scale speci? d. Here market orientation is again composed of three components as well, namely: intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness.In 1998 Desphande developed and tested a scale synthesizing the earlier scales of Kohli and Jaworski from 1990 (MARKOR) as well as Narver and Slater from 1990 (MKTOR) and Deshpande 1993. To explore the scales in more detail, the publication from 1998 includes the scales as mentioned before (Desphande 1998). [6] Evaluation Scales (Despande 1998) * Our business objectives are driven primarily by customer satisfaction. We constantly monitor our level of commitment and orientation to serving customer needs. * We freely communicate information abut our successful and unsuccessful customer experiences across all business functions. * Our strategy for competitive advantage is based on our understanding of customers’ needs. * We measure customer satisfaction systematically and frequently. * We have routine or regular measures of customer service. * We are more customer focused than our competitors. * I believe this business exists primarily to serve customers. We poll end user’s at least once a year to assess the quality fo our products and services. * Data on customer satisfaction are disseminated at all levels in this business unit on a regular basis.

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