Emotions present in the story 7. Theme – Central idea of the story – Human condition that is present in the story – does not have exactly have to be moralistic Elements of Poetry 1. ) Persona – Person talking in the poem – Not always the author 2. ) Addressee – the one who is talking by the persona – listener 3. ) Objective situation – Where and when (the poem happened) 4. ) Poetic tension – the crisis/problem in the poem 5. ) Tone – motive 6. ) Objective Correlative – the central metaphor / the recurring or controlling image UNIT 2 IMAGING THE FILIPINO WOMAN TUNGKUNG LANGIT AND ALUNSINA (Visayan Folktale) Adapted by F.Landa Jocano Characters: *Tungkung Langit – God – “Pillar of the Sky” – industrious, loving and kind. *Alunsina – God -“ Unmarried one” – selfish, lazy, jealous – irrational, paranoid Highlights: *Before there was no earth and sky, only a confusion. *Tungkung Langit married Alunsina *One time, Tungkung Langit went away to put and end to some chaotic disturbances. Alunsina, sent the breeze to spy on Tungkung Langit. *Tungkung Langit knew about this and he became angry to Alunsina. He drove away Alunsina. *Alunsina disappeared. *Tungkung Langit felt very lonely. He made different things to make Alunsina come back. Points: The story emphasized that, traditionally, men always work. *It also emphasized the capability of women to be independent by making Alunsina leave Tungkung Langit. *Women are mysterious and indeterminate *Women are caring but they can be dangerous *Women can really be deadly (Example: Helen of Troy, Eve, Mother Earth) **COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS – Carl Gustar Jung – regardless of the writer’s nationality, his view of men and women are the same – the DNA of human psyche – that if all humans have the same physical heritage, they share the same innate psychological predespositions (in the form of archetypes (metaphor))BABAE AKONG NAMUMUHAY NG MAG-ISA by Joi Barrios > Ascribing characteristics to different kind of woman in society such as a separated woman, spinster, mistress, whore. > A revolutionary poem. > Emphasized a great difference between men and women (such as by being a bachelor or a spinster) Points: *The poem emphasized the speaker of having no regrets on her bitter past. (1st stanza) *If a woman has a bitter past, the society will associate it to them up to present time. (2nd stanza) *Emphasized the feminist standards of society (3rd stanza) *The freedom and own choice of a woman (4th stanza) 5th stanza: Shows that being independent is not a limitation thus a way of redeeming self. **6th stanza: The ability of women to be independent. —– Other notes (in connection with the comparison of the 3 feministic poems in this unit) *The woman in the poem is strong in a sense that she conquers herself *The society is sexist; It Is phallocentric (male-centered) *She believe that she has failed the society’s standard *She decides for herself; Dubbed as something because she decided to be single *Compared to man, man are marketable (as they age, their value increases) *She advocates radical change gt; Stereotype (standard mental feature) Sample: “Puta” (prostitute) – Spanish meaning: Son/Daughter of someone who doesn’t have her husband Ang Babaing Nangarap ng Gising by Virgilio Almario – Weakest among the three – Stuck in the house – Daydreams (enter fantasy world) – She shuts off reality (as a way of survival) – Have a passive attitude -Has a very little knowledge about herself – Additional: “Sandok na bali” – symbolizes poverty Babae Ako By Inang Laya – Most emancipated woman – “Empowerment of women” – A song tribute to Cory Aquino in the 1980’s – Notice the phrase, “Babae Ka” in every stanza First and 3rd lines are paradox **Space of Women: 1. ) Home – as wife / mother 2. ) Church – as nun 3. ) Street – as a prostitute // Points that woman can be more than of these 3 roles – Talks about liberation of women is parallel to the sovereignty of he nation – Women is urge to break from sexist society – Women needs recognition of her capabilities and her worth THIRD WORLD FEMINISM 1. ) Gender – the fact that you’re a woman, you’re already degraded 2. ) Sexuality – Wrong notion: If you’re a feminist, you’re a lesbian 3. ) Class – Poor women – Chandra Talpade Mohanty 4. ) Race – If you’re non-white, you’re discriminated *Feminism – literary movement – a way of approaching a particular text // Literary approach – group of women clamouring for equality (or recognition) WOMAN WITH HORNS by Cecilia Manguerra-Brainard Setting: Ubec (Fictional place); 1903 – American occupation Characters: 1. ) Dr. Gerald McAllister – widower – doctor from New York – focused with work – has a wife (Blanche) who had died from consumption (TB) 3 years ago. 2. ) Dr. Jaime Laurel – assistant of Dr. Gerald – carefree – Filipino 3. ) Agustina Macaraig – childlike -widow – unconventional Highlights: *Dr. Gerald and Agustina met in a weird way. *Dr.Gerald made known of different gossips about Agustina: > She was born with horns; cut by carpenter > She has an encantado father. > Her mother bedded with one of the Christ’s chosen. *On social affair, Agustina flirted with Dr. McAllister. *Dr. McAllister on flashback (Another element of fiction): Remembered her wife died because of consumption. He was guilty of being a doctor and has done nothing about it. He was also guilty of having an affair with another woman while her wife was bedridden. *The mother of the mayor died and Dr. McAllister showed no sympathy. *The funeral was festive and several weird things happened. Agustina and Dr. McAllister met again. Then during the night, they met also at the river and “fell into each other’s arm”. Points: *Agustina became a goddess of inspiration to doctor McAllister (If Agustina can move on about his husband’s death, so is doctor McAllister). *Something can be demonic and dubious, not because it really is, but because we are afraid to see it for what it is. (As for the case of Agustina). *Why Agustina is called Woman with Horns? – It is because she doesn’t follow the norms. Ubecan find her strange because she recovered easily in a short period of time after her husband’s death.She was seen as a demon and regarded as a witch because she is not understood (which is unfair for Agustina). *Women are medusa (women’s revenge against masculine ways) *Symbolism: Moon (change of phases means changes of moods) UNIT THREE IMAGING THE FILIPINO FAMILY MATS by Francisco Arellana Characters: a. ) Nana Emilia b. ) Mr. Angeles c. ) Children (Marcelina, Jose, Antonio, Juan, Jesus, Susana, Victoria, Concepcion, Josefina, Alfonso) Points: – The story symbolizes the situation of a family having dead members – The mats are symbol of love and comfort of the family. Mats for the dead members can be interpreted as the family has not yet moved on about the other member’s death. – **We should not forget people who are dead because they become part of our lives THE SADNESS COLLECTOR by Merlinda Bobis Techniques used: 1. ) Indeterminacies – facts of the text with no details 2. ) Shifting point of view 3. ) Stream of consciousness > dramatic irony > details perceived by the reader but left unperceived by the other characters. 4. ) Local Color –(use of native language to make it sound more realistic) Points: -The story symbolizes the effect of migration of a family member *Father coming home at night gt; avoiding the inquiries of the aunties or Rica > That’s why he need to concoct a tale *Baby in the photograph – the mother is not anymore a “TNT” in Paris – the mother already had another family in Paris *Last sentence can be interpreted as Rica being very sad and she is left alone in her own thoughts. *Rica is the actual sadness collector (children suffer more than the parents in family situations like in the story) // Please refer more to the handouts given by Ma’am. These are just additional notes. *** BRINGING THE DOLLS by Merlie Alunan Title implies: 1. ) Memories 2. ) Relationship Two dolls in rags and tatters, ne missing an arm and a leg, the other blind in one eye—I grabbed them from her arms, “No,” I said, “they cannot come. ” She do not want to bring with her the memories Persona: the mother (who is separated from her husband) Each tight baggage I had packed only for the barest need: no room for sentiment or memoryStill in pain and being rational in the whole matter to clutter with loose ends my stern resolve. I reasoned, even a child must learn she cannot take what must be left behind. Central image of the second stanza: Letting go And so the boat turned seaward, a smart wind blowing dry the stealthy tears I could not wipe. he has to be brave Then I saw—rags, tatters and all— her child secretly put it in her mother’s luggage there among the neat trim packs, the dolls I ruled to leave behind. Her silence should have warned me *silence – disapproval to parents’ separation Silence (can be interpreted as conformation, rebellion, sign of disrespect) she knew her burdens –effect to the child: can be insecurity/envy/disillusionment in the near future as I knew mine: mother’s anxieties like “How would I able to support my child? ” etc her clean white years unlived— mother is sorry for her child going through the situation and paid my price.