Tourism in its broadest generic

Tourism in its broadest generic sense can do more to develop understanding among the people, provide jobs, create foreign exchange and raise living standards than any other economic force. India is world famous for the city of Taj -Agra.There are a number of other tourists attractions like Agra Fort, Itmad-uddaula’s tomb, Bharatpur Sanctuary, Sikandara, Fatehpur Sikri etc which have equal historical and architectural significance but tourists are not aware of about all these places and monuments. The focus of this paper is on the economic benefits accruing to the state byway of tourist’s arrivals to Agra. Though Agra receives maximum number of tourists but except Taj Mahal they are not aware about other monuments.This study will evaluate the reasons of lacking in economic benefits from tourism and also analyse the tourist’ problems facing at Agra. Key Words: Economic, Potential, Tourism, Agra, Taj Mahal. 1 JEL Classification: L83, M1, O1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is a field of human activity known to mankind from time immemorial. It cuts across barriers of caste, colour, creed and builds universal brotherhood. The world’s oldest industry is also one of the largest and fastest growing industries today. In general terms travel is referred to any movement of one or more people from one point to another.There is not much difference between tourism and travel; in general both terms are used as synonyms (Nanthakumar et al, 2008). Many people believe that tourism is a service industry that takes care of visitors when they are away from home. Some restrict the definition of © University of the Aegean. Print ISSN: 1790-8418, Online ISSN: 1792-6521 139 Surabhi Srivastava tourism by number of miles away from home, overnight stays in paid accommodations, or travel for the purpose of pleasure or leisure. Others think that travel and tourism should not even be referred to as an industry.Hunt and Layne (1991) acknowledge the problems of defining travel and tourism. They say that travel was the most accepted term until 1987 and that since that time tourism is the accepted term used to “singularly describe the activity of people taking trips away from home and the industry which has developed in response to this activity”. ROLE OF TOURISM IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Tourism today is one of the fastest growing industries throughout the world. A large number of developing countries today are aware of the economic potential benefit of tourism.The economic value of tourism to an economy is measured by its contribution to the national income, the earnings of foreign exchange, its contribution to the state revenues ; the creation of employment The importance of earnings for developing countries is, however, much more felt than those for developed countries. Although tourism is sensitive to the level of economic activity in the tourist generating countries, it provides more stable earnings than being provided by primary products. Tourism is thus the most important source of income for many countries.For instance, newly emerging countries in such areas as the Caribbean depend very heavily on tourist income, which often represents the major part of the gross domestic product (GDP). Tourism as a source of income is not easy to measure, at least with any degree of accuracy, the reason being of the multiplier effect (Clarke et al, 2009; Brida et al, 2010; Rastegar, 2010). The flow of money generated by tourist spending multiplies as it passes through various sections of the economy through the operation of the multiplier effect (Dritsakis, 2008; Boopen, 2006).Tourism not only creates jobs but it also encourages growth in the primary and secondary sectors of industry. This is known as the multiplier effect which in its simplest form is how many times money spent by a tourist circulates through a country’s economy. India as a tourist destination has an immense attraction of its own various angles. It is a land full of mysteries with the grandeur of its untouched mountains, the majesty of its age-old monuments. 140 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050)OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This research study has been basically directed to the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. To study the prospects the various attraction spots in and around Agra. To identify the area of improvement needed for tourism. To examine tourism as a growing industry in terms of earning revenue, foreign exchange and providing employment opportunities in Agra. In order to fulfill the objectives, few null hypothesis will be tested under this study through T Test: 1. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about hotels, lodges and apartments.There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about the types of hotel offering them. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about the behavior/ Services of hotel staff at Agra. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about information offices and communication centers.There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about behaviour of local guides and people. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about locals/ Residents at Agra. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about feeling of security. There is no significant difference between the importance accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced by tourists about the services rendered by travel agents at Agra. 41 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Surabhi Srivastava 9. There is no significant difference between the accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced about cultural attraction. 10. There is no significant difference between the accorded and the level of satisfaction experienced about the various Government policies regarding Agra. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY importance by tourists importance by tourists tourism at To achieve the desired result the study was depend on tested methods of surveys and interviews of the various constituents of the tourism industry, including the tourists.Surveys had been conducted with purposefully designed questionnaires, and interview methods. Proper analysis of the government policies and the data of tourists arrivals and receipts in Agra will also help in deriving conclusions in the research. Informations were gathered from the state tourism department and the data available on the internet. In order to analyse the study and test the hypothesis, following statistical tools were used. Chi-square technique was used applied as given below and compared with the tabulated value at respective degree of freedom and the level of relationship was determined at 5 percent level of ignificance to test the null hypothesis. X? = ? (fo-fe)? Fe Where fo= observed frequency in each cell Fe= expected (theoretical) frequency in each cell According to World Tourism Organisation; 1. The share of India in international tourist arrivals in 2005 is . 49% and the arrivals is only 3. 92 million whereas the share of France is 9. 4% ,USA is 6. 11%. The share of India in international tourist receipts in 2005 is . 8% and the total tourism receipts is only 5. 73 million whereas the share of France is 6. 2% ,USA is 12%. The share of Uttar Pradesh in domestic tourist visits during 2005 is 24. %. 2. 3. 142 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) 4. 5. 6. Foreign tourists arrivals in India in the year 2006 (till July)was 2486117 and in 2005(till July) this figure was just 2183573. Foreign exchange earnings in India in the year 2006 (till July)was 15749. 96 and in 2005(till July) this figure was just 13668. 75 Crore. On an average, per tourist foreign exchange earning in India was about 1462US$ against the estimated world average of US$ 844.Even when the average earnings per tourists are compared with those of the top world tourist generating countries or with countries in India? s neighbourhood, it was highest in India with an exception of USA. TOURISM POTENTIAL OF AGRA The city of Taj Mahal and a leading travel destination of India The city of Agra is world famous for Taj Mahal and a million of tourists from all over the world come here every year to savor the different moods of this magnificent edifice. As Agra was a seat of the Mughal rulers for many years, it also has number of historical monuments in and around the city, dating back to the 16/17 century.Emperor Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, the beautiful city of red sandstone, near Agra. Agra has a rich historical background, which is amply evident from the numerous historical monuments in and around the city. Though the heritage of Agra City is linked with the Mughal dynasty, numerous other rulers also contributed to the rich past of this city. The city of Agra is situated on the west or right bank of the river Yammuna. It is connected by rail and road with most of the prinicipal cities of India. It is on the air route Delhi-Agra-Khajurao-Varanasi. Agra has a healthy climate though it tends to be extreme.After the establishment of the Mughal Empire Agra steadily gained in importance and soon became the city of India under Akbar and his two immediate successors. There is no other monument in the world, which can match the beauty and grandeur of the Taj Mahal. Besides Taj, there are other famous monuments like Agra Fort, Itmad-ud-daula’s tomb, Bharatpur Sanctuary, Sikandara, Fatehpur Sikri etc. 143 Surabhi Srivastava Monuments at Agra Taj Mahal Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that its architectural beauty has never been surpassed.The Taj is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India. Taj Mahal was built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C. E. ) in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. It is an “elegy in marble” or some say an expression of a “dream. ” Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal at the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was added to it later. Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents show that its master architect was Ustad „Isa, the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The documents contain names of those employed and the inventory of construction materials and their origin. Expert craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked on many specialized tasks. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon.The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements. Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162. 5 feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper.The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur? an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of 144 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 39-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center. Each of these four sections is further subdivided into four sections and then each into yet another four sections. Other Monuments within Taj Complex 1. 2. 3. 4. Rauza Saheli The tomb of Sirhindi Begum Fatehpuri Masjid Mumtazabad (Taj Ganj) Agra Fort Though Agra is more famous world over as the city of Taj, Agra Fort is another dimension to the city that attracts tourists in hordes.Built by Akbar in Red Sandstone when he was through with the consolidation of his power after accession to power in 1654, Agra Fort worked both as a military strategic point as well as the royal residence. Many of the palaces inside the fort were later added by next generations of Mughal Emperors like Jahangir and Shahjahan. Built by Akbar in Red Sandstone when he was through with the consolidation of his power after accession to power in 1654, Agra Fort worked both as a military strategic point as well as the royal residence.Many of the palaces inside the fort were later added by next generations of Mughal Emperors like Jahangir and Shahjahan. Most of the buildings within the Agra Fort are a mixture of different architectural styles. The assimilation of these different styles has given the buildings within the fort a distinctive look. For instance, the Jahangiri Palace built by Akbar is a good blend of Islamic (Persian) and different local Hindu styles. Other buildings either have a mixed style or conform predominantly to the Islamic style.Akbar, king at 14, began consolidating his empire and, as an assertion of his power built the fort in Agra between 1565 and 1571, coeval with the construction of Humayun’s tomb in Delhi. The Agra fort retains the irregular outline of the demolished mud-wall fort of the Lodis. The lofty battlements o the new fort cast its protective shadow over the far stretching mansions of court that nobles and princes built along the riverfront. The magnificent towers, bastions and ramparts and majestic 145 Surabhi Srivastava gateways symbolized the confidence and power of the third Mughal emperor, Akbar.The fort is auricular in shape and its colossal double walls rise 20 m in height and measure 2. 5 m in circumference. The fort is encircled by a fetid moat. The lofty battlements of the Agra fort cast its protective shadow over the far stretching mansions of nobles and princes built along the riverfront. The magnificent towers, bastions and ramparts and majestic gateways symbolized the confidence and power of the third Mughal emperor. The fort contains splendid palaces both in red sandstone and white marble built by two generations of prolific builders, Akbar and later on by Jahangir and Shahjahan.Of the nearly 500 Akbari buildings built in the Bengal and Gujarati traditions, only a few have survived, arrayed in a band on the riverfront. Buildings Inside the Fort 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Jehangir Mahal Jodha Bai’s Palace Delhi Gate Amar Singh Gate Akbari Mahal Shah jehani Mahal Khas Mahal Shish Mahal Anguri Bagh Muthamman Burj Mina Masjid Diwan -i-Khas Nagina Masjid Machchhi Bhawan Moti Masjid Diwan-i- am Fatehpur Sikri 16 kms from the city of Agra, stands Fatehpur Sikri, Akbar? s capital. Fatehpur Sikri was built during 1571 and 1585.Fatehpur Sikri is one of the finest examples of Mughal architectural splendour at its height. Though the city is in ruins, it is a place to visit if 146 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) one comes to Agra. But in real terms Fatehpur Sikri is a place where one should spend some time. The sunset over the ruins is sight to cherish. Fatehpur Sikri is the best example of the culmination of Hindu and Muslim architecture. Fatehpur Sikri Mosque is said to be a copy of the mosque in Mecca and has designs, derived from the Persian ; Hindu architecture.The Main Attractions Diwani-i-Am Diwani-i-Khas Jodhabai? s Palace Friday Mosque Salim Chisti? s Mausoleum Sikandara This monument is only 13 km. from the Agra Fort. Akbar who ruled over the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605, began building his mausoleum in the spartan style of Timurid architecture. The mausoleum was completed by his son, the next Mughal Emperor, Jahangir, who added more decorative elements to the design of Akbar’s tomb in Sikandra. The entrance to Akbar’s tomb in Sikandra is under a huge arched gateway, similar to the Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri.There are beautiful calligraphic inscriptions on the white marble front of the gate. As you enter the gate you will see a formal garden in the charbagh tradition, and the tomb of Akbar situated at the center. Within the same complex is another sober tomb made of red sandstone, which contains the grave of Akbar’s wife Mariam, the mother of Jahangir. Akbar’s tomb in Sikandra is built in a pyramidal shape, with an open terrace covered with carved latticework screens. The actual grave is in the basement and is decorated with paintings in colorful golden, green and blue hues on the stucco walls.The last resting place of the Mughal emperor Akbar was this city. Akbar was the greatest of the Mughal emperors and one of the most secular minded royalties of his time. He was the heir to a long tradition of oriental refinement, a great patron of the arts, literature, philosophy and science. Itmad-ud-Daula is the tomb of Mirza Ghiyas Beg, a Persian who had obtained service in Akbar’s court. The tomb set a startling precedent as the first Mughal building to be face with white inlaid marble and 147 Surabhi Srivastava contrasting stones.Unlike the Taj it is small, intimate and, since it is less frequented, has a gentle serenity. Chini Ka Rauza is One of the lesser-known monuments of Agra is the tomb known as the Chini ka Rauza, which is situated 1 Kilometer north of Itimad ud Daulah’s Tomb. The Chini ka Rauza was built in 1635 and is the tomb of Allama Afzal Khan Mullah of Shiraz, a scholar and poet who was the Prime Minister of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. The tomb gets its name from the colorful tiles (chini) that cover the walls of the tomb. The tomb is built in a rectangular shape and is topped with a bulbous dome.The Soami Bagh Samadh is the mausoleum of Huzur Soamiji Maharaj (Shri Shiv Dayal Singh) in the Dayalbagh section in the outskirts of the city. He was the founder of the Radhasoami Faith and the Samadh is sacred to its followers. Construction began in 1908, and it is believed that construction will never end. It is often seen as the “next Taj Mahal”. The carvings in stone, using a combination or coloured marble, is life-like and not seen anywhere else in India. When completed, the samadh will have a carved dome and a gateway Other Monuments of Agra 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.Kanch Mahal (Glass Palace) Tomb of Itibar Khan Guru -ka-Tal Sarai Nur Jehan Humayun ‘s Mosque Kachhpura Tomb of Sadiq Khan Mir-Bakhshi Tomb of Salabat Khan Mir-Bakhshi ‘Roshan-Zamir’ Battis Khambah Jami Masjid and the Muthamman Chowk Chhatri Rani Hada Tomb of Firuz Khan Khwaja Sara Hessing ‘s Tomb TOURISM CONTRIBUTORS TO ECONOMIES OF AGRA The term ‘Tourism contributors to economies’ denotes all the service industries, which are essential for the domestic and the international tourists. It includes all the transport facilities like airlines, railways, travel buses, taxies, Accommodation sectors- all star hotels, resorts, small 148TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) restaurants, local shops, different handicrafts exhibitions and other local made products. Accommodation Industry The city saw an occupancy and average rate grow in 2003-04 after a steady decline in the three previous years. The occupancy increased by 5. 4% and the average rate increased by 74. 4%. Increased response to the survey from five-star deluxe and five-star hotels has resulted in a strong increase in average rates. Source: www. hvsinternational. com) Transport Industry Being on the regular tourist route, which runs from Delhi-AgraKhajuraho-Varanasi, Agra is connected by regular flights to these places. The local airport is known as the Kheria Airport. Express bus services (a/c and non-a/c) are available from Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow, Gwalior, and Jhansi. The Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains have also their stoppage in Agra. The city is well connected by trains to almost every corner of the nation. Souvenir Industry Agra is an important center of the leather industry in India.Agra is a leading center of the footwear industry, with more than 400,000 thousand pairs of shoes being produced every day in both modern factories and cottage enterprises. Being a hub of Leather industry, Agra also offers a plethora of Leather products such as sandals, purse, wallets, jackets, trousers, skirts and more to take back home. Agra is also internationally known Rug and Carpet Weaving Industry The main markets for shopping for leather in Agra are near the Taj Mahal complex. These areas include Sadar Bazaar, Kinari Bazaar and Munro Road. The U.P State Emporium called Gangotri at the Taj Mahal Complex, offers a range of leather handicrafts. The Shilpagram crafts village is another venue where leather items are on sale, directly by the craftsmen themselves. Agra is renowned for its marble tabletops, vases and trays, inlaid with semi-precious stones in ornate floral designs, in imitation of those found in the Taj Mahal. It is also an excellent place to buy leather : Agra’s shoe industry supplies all India, and its tanneries export bags, briefcases and jackets. Carpets and dhurries are manufactured here too, and traditional 149 Surabhi Srivastava mbroidery continues to thrive. Zari and zardozi are brightly coloured, the latter building up three-dimensional patterns with fantastic motifs; chikan uses more delicate overlay techniques. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM AT AGRA True benefits of tourism can only be appreciated on a broad basis, which include not only economic aspects but also social and cultural aspects. The impacts made by tourism depend upon the volume and profile characteristic of the tourists (their length of stay, activity, mode of transport, travel arrangements, etc. ). There may be negative effects, environmental and ecological effects, etc.Tourism can play a vital role for international understanding and keeping peace in the world by developing social, cultural, economic as well as political understanding among the people of different nations and by way bringing diverse people face to face. Thus in the modern day world which is characterized by strikes, problems and misunderstanding, tourism can bring people together and promote harmony and understanding. Tourism ahs been recognized as a significant factor in the economy of many nations. It is the biggest foreign exchange earner for countries like India, Thailand, Spain.The net income generated in a country by tourism will vary directly with the expenditure of visitors in the host country and on the other side an increase in expenditure on tourism abroad by the nationals of a country lowers the national income. Tourism has been identified not only as an important source of foreign exchange earning but also as an industry creating employment opportunities and generating economic growth of the country. So proper cultivation of tourism is expected to contribute in forging links of mutual understanding and appreciation for better world of tomorrow. Ananda Bajracharya, 1955) Economic impact = Number of Visitors * Average spending per visitor * Multiplier This simple model is usually elaborated further by: (Dividing visitors into distinct segments with different spending patterns (e. g. campers, day users, visitors in motels). Measuring spending in distinct spending categories (e. g. lodging, restaurant meals, gas, groceries). Allocating spending into the economic sectors that receive it and applying economic ratios and multipliers for those sectors. 150 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6,Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) Economic Impact of Tourism in India, Uttar Pradesh and at Agra 1. Through tourism, India earns 25172 crores. foreign exchange and Uttar Pradesh alone earns foreign exchange earns 5034. 45 crores in the year 2005. The total revenue generation, from the domestic tourists and international tourists in U. P. is 7510. 60 crores in 2004 from 2748. 67 crores in 1995. Total revenue from tourism in U. P. is 1129. 88 lakhs in 2004-05 and the total expenditure is 1107. 88 lakhs in the same year. The net loss incurred by the U. P. overnment by the U. P. government is Rs. 53 lakhs. On an average, foreign tourist? s expenditure is 6421. 42in India and428. 82 in Uttar Pradesh in 2005 which was 3976. 41in India and 260. 028 at Uttar Pradesh in 1995. In India, the total employment from tourism is 24,457 in 2004 which reaches from 16,092in 1990. In India, the direct employment from tourism is 11404 in 2004 which was 6820 in 1990 whereas in U. P. then there were 13861 people were employed in tourism sector in the year 04-05. According to the survey, in India, social travel is most popular among domestic tourists 58. % people travel for the social reasons, 13. 6% travellers are religious and only 6% people travels for leisure purposes. According to the survey, Tirupati is the most popular destination in India. After this Puri, Vaishnodevi, Darjeeling and then Agra comes under the popular destination list. Only 1. 8 million/ year a domestic tourist travels in Agra as compared to Tirupati where 11. 8 million tourists visits. According to U. P. tourism department the average stay of foreign tourists in UP is 6 days and the average stay of domestic tourists in UP is 1. to 1. 4 days. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. PRESENTATION AND EVALUATION OF DATA ON ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM In order to complete the study, both the primary and secondary data has been taken into account. In many places, secondary data have been compiled. The work has identified with one dependent variable; Tourist 151 Surabhi Srivastava Arrival in Agra with the six independent variables; world tourist flow, tourist flow to India, tourist flow to Uttar Pradesh, tourist flow to Agra, promotional expenses made by Uttar Pradesh Government.Similarly the study has attempted to identify and assess the importance and level of significance using the independent variables like tourist arrivals, season or weather, scenery, feeling of secure, behaviour of local guides, transportation, hotels, lodges and apartments, food and drinks available, tourist information offices and communication centers, shopping facilities and money exchange service at Agra. The hypothesis about the significant relation between the dependent variables like revenue generation, foreign exchange earnings with each of the independent variables has been tested by using suitable test.To find out the specific trends of domestic tourists at Agra, an extensive survey is conducted, comprising of 100 domestic tourists at different locations in Agra between the time period of September 2008Febuary 2009. The questionnaire is prepared comprised of 30 questions which reveals their basic ideas, knowledge and experience. For foreign visitors at Agra, survey has been done, comprising of 45 tourists at different locations in Agra between the time period of September 2008Febuary 2009.The questionnaire is prepared comprised of 30 questions which reveals their basic ideas, knowledge and experience about Agra visit. SUMMARY RESULT OF TEST OF HYPOTHESIS: Indian tourists Hypothesis No. Description “Variation between IA and LOS as EBT about…. ” Lodging facility Types of hotel Behaviour/ services provided by the hotel staff Test Applied X? value at 5% level of significance(LOS) Tabulated Value= 7. 815 CV=19. 52 CV=41. 12 CV=90. 8 Result Variation 1 2 3 X? test X? test X? test Significant Significant Significant 152TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Information Offices Behaviour of Local guides Behaviour of localites Feeling of security Services by travel agents Cultural Activities Government Policies X? test X? test X? test X? test X? test X? test X? test CV=54. 56 CV=23. 52 Significant Significant CV=46. 24 CV=29. 26 CV=39. 68 Significant Significant Significant CV=46. 24 CV=19. 36 Significant Significant International Tourists Hypothesi s No. Descriptio n “Variation between IA and LOS as EBT about…. Lodging facility Types of hotel Behaviour/ services provided by the hotel staff Information Offices Behaviour of Local guides Behaviour of localites Test Applie d X? value at 5% level of significance(LOS ) Tabulated Value= 7. 815 Result Variation 1 2 3 X? test X? test X? test CV=9. 74 CV=8. 94 CV=3. 89 Significant Significant Insignifican t 4 5 X? test X? test X? test CV=4. 07 CV=12. 14 Insignifican t Significant 6 CV=12. 14 Significant 153 Surabhi Srivastava 7 8 Feeling of security Services by travel agents Cultural Activities X? test X? test X? test CV=8. 14 CV=31. 61 Significant Significant 9 CV=2. 54 Insignifican tSUGGESTIONS Economically, the solicitation by the Taj from Agra has a strong potential invitation for the tourists and for the development of tourism as an industry by the competent authorities. In order to encounter the above general problems in tourism industry at Agra, the following remedial steps may effectively bring improvements to secure high degree of positive results. Facility of providing the services of an airport of international level, so that the air tourists may drop at this airport and reach their destination point at Agra without wasting their time instead of dropping at Delhi airport and reach Agra by road journey.Merely viewing the magnificence of monumental architectural structures shall not bind the tourists for their longer stay at Agra. To encounter any shortcoming, some newly challenging and attractive points/ place etc. should be developed which oblige the tourist to come to Agra and induce their haltage at Agra for a sufficiently longer period span. This will nullify their intention of short stay to Agra to visit Taj only and thereafter more either to Jaipur or back to Delhi or any other place for better comfortable lodging facilities or so on.The examples of establishing developing and promoting the science city at Kolkata, Hawa Mahal at jaipur,Vrindavan garden at Mysore, Zoo and museum of Tiruvanantpuram with rich heritages etc. may looked into case study, which shall provide a prudent guidance for exploring some suitable projects for Agra which may be ingenious for inviting more and more tourists at Agra with their longer stay here at that shall generate wider fields for economic activities at Agra. More efforts should be endeavored to popularize densely the dignity of all other old monuments at Agra.It will generate more employment, infrastructure and social and financial upliftment of Agrites directly. 154 TOURISMOS: AN INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF TOURISM Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 2011, pp. 139-158 UDC: 338. 48+640(050) More number of budget hotels with better amenities along with well trained and well cultured guides should be made available to the tourists folks all along 24 hours services in a descent and a respectable ways. Some drive should be organized launched on regularly among the Agrites which may develop and win the confidence of the tourists which will give rise to feelings of fraternity visa versa tourists.This will create congenial atmosphere and the tourists will feel homely while away from their home. A bondage of human relationship will be established which will lead to social harmony developing better economic and status bringing better prosperity to Agrites. Some arrangements should be made to develop Agra, as a meeting or a conference center for beaurocrates and for businessmen. So that people from different part of the country and even outside country visits for the purpose of meetings, seminars, conferences and stays for two or three days.By developing this phenomenon tourists will come directly Agra and not any other city like Delhi and so on. In present days, the tourist expects something more thrilling, adventurous, knowledgeable and memorable which Agra as a tourist spot does not cater fully. The auditorium should be there at Agra where in the different culture, Art and music etc. Of Uttar Pradesh-Purvanchal, Awadh, Bundelkhand, Brij etc. can be exhibited and shown through sound and light show. Besides, there may be stalls having articles of common use and interest and the speciality of different regions of the state.Such as Muglai Kabab and chicken works of Lucknow, Balmithai of Nainital, Petha and Dalmoth of Agra, pan of Mahoba, peras of Mathura etc. be displayed there. It will no doubt attract people in good number. There is a huge difference between the western countries and India when it comes to medical costs. It has been suggested that the government should develop Agra for the health tourism. People may visit for the health reasons and relax there under the shadow of beautiful and enchanting monuments. Cottages like wards may be built where people may like to reside and relax.To achieve such a goal, a comprehensive, far sighted planning and sincere perennial efforts is needed which may explore suitable projects that may nullify the short comings of transforming Agra as an ideal tourist place. 155 Surabhi Srivastava REFERENCES Government Publications Brida, J. 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Prints Hall of India, pp. 28-32. Pittman, M. The Economics of Travel and Tourism. A. Bull Publication. Sharpley, R. Telfer, J. D. Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Channel View Publications, pp. 156-168. Tej Vir Singh. (1975). Tourism and tourism industry. New Delhi, New Heights, pp. 78-82. Edensor, T. (1998). Tourists at the Taj (International Library of Sociology) (Paperback), 1st edition. Routledge. SUBMITTED: APR 2010 REVISION SUBMITTED: AUG 2010 2nd REVISION SUBMITTED: OCT 2010 ACCEPTED: NOV 2010 157 Surabhi Srivastava REFEREED ANONYMOUSLY Surabhi Srivastava ([email protected] com) is Lecturer at the Sherwood College of Professional Management, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India. 158

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